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Jo th* rfeader of Uhti 

May it give wings to your pencil, 
to carry you to die heights 
of good draftmanship 

(Illustration fwgesare 

A Shout Chat wmi the ReaDBH 

Part One: Mens Heads 

Plate L The basic shape is a flattened halt 

Plate 2. The aII-im/H)rtatit cross on the bait 

Plate S* The cross and the multile line de- 
termine the pose 

Plate I. Establishing the middle line 

Plate 5. Simplified bone structure 

Plate ft The bony jtarts within the con- 

Plate 7. Action of the head on the neck 

Plate ft Building the head out of pieces 


Plate 9. Basic and secondary planes of the 

Plate 1(1 Tilting the head 

Plate II, Perspective in drawing the head 

Plate 12. Variety in spacing creates types 

Plate 13. Always build on the middle tine 

Plate 14. Creating any desired type 

Plate IS. Tyjws are built by varying the 

Indl and the plane 39 

Plate 16. Indicating character 40 

Rhythm 41 

Plate 17. Rhythmic lines in the head 42 

The Standard Head 43 

Plate 18. Projtortions of the male head 43 

Plate 19. Drawing the head in units 44 

Muscles of the Head and Face 45 

Plate 20. Anatomy of the head 46 

Plate 21. I low the muscles function 47 

Plate 22. The muscles from various angles 48 

Why You Need Anatomy to Draw Heads 49 


indicated by italics) 

Plate 23. Mechanics of the mouth 

Plate 24. Mechanics of the eyes 

Plate 25. Movement of the lips 

Plate 26. Construction of the nose and the 

Plate 27. Expression-the laugh 

Plate 28. Various expressions 

Plate 29. Characterization through expres- 

Plate 30. Analysis of facial markings 

Plate 31. Drawing faces of different ages 


Plate 32. Modeling the planes 

Plate 33. Combining anatomy, construc- 
tion, and planes 

Plate 31. Building tone with planes 

Plate 35. Every head is a separate problem 

Plate 36. Types of character 

Plate 37. Smiling men 

Plate 3H. Older men 

Plate 39. Characterization 







Part Two: Women's Meads 

Plate 40. Constructing the female head 

Plate 41. Establish the construction of 
each head 

Plate 42. Bone and muscle arc less appar- 
ent in women's heads 

Plate 43. Charm lies in the basic drawing 

Plate 44. "Blockiness" also applies to 
women's heads 

Plate 45. Some girls' heads 
Plate 46. More girls' heads 

Plate 47. Sketches 












Plate 48. Sketches 

Plate 49. Grandmothers 8ft 

Plate 50. The aging process 87 

Part Three: Babies* Heads 91 

Plate 51, Profwrtions of the baby head- 
first year 92 

Plate 52. ProfX>rtions of the baby head- 
second and third years 93 

Plate 53. Construction of the baby head 94 

Plate 54. Sketches of Imbies 95 

Plate 55. Studies of babies 96 

Plate 56. More studies of babies 97 

Plate 57. Some more studies of babies 98 

Plate 58. The four divisions of the face- 
third and fourth years 99 

Part Four: Heads of Boys and Girls 103 

1. Small Children 103 

Plate 59. Proportions of the little boys 

head 104 

Plate 6ft Pw)>ortlons of the little girl's 

head 1(6 

Plate 6L Construction of the little boys 

head 10© 

Plate 62. Construction of tlte little girls 

head 107 

Plate 63. Studies of little boys 108 

Plate 64. Studies of little girls 109 

Plate 65. More little botjs 110 

Plate 66. More little girls 111 

II* SchoolCiiildres 115 

Plate 67. Proportions of the schoolboys 

head US 


85 Plate 68- Proportions of the schoolgirl's 

Plate 69. The four divisions—schoolboys 
Plate 70. The four divisions-schoolgirls 
Plate 71. Sketches of schoolboys 
Plate 72. Sketches of schoolgirls 

IIL Teen-agers 
Plate 73. Proportions of the teen-age ftoi/s 

Plate 74. Proportions of the teen-age girPs 

Plate 75. Teen*age boys 

Plate 76. Teen-age girls 

Part Five: Hands 
Plate 77. Anatomy of the hand 
Plate 78. Block forms of the hand 
Plate 79. Proportions of the hand 
Plate 80. Construction of the haiul 
Plate 81. The hollow of the palm 





Plate 82. Foreshortening in drawing hands 140 

Plate 83. The hand in action 141 

Plate 84. Knuckles 142 

Phite 85. Drawing your own hand 

Plate 86. The female hand 

Plate 87. Tapered fingers 

Plate 88. Make many studies of hands 

Plate 89. The baby hand 

Plate 90. Studies of baby hands 

Plate 91. Children s hands 

Plate 92. The proportions remain fairly 
constant 150 

Plate 93. The liand ages 151 

A Farewell tothe Reader 153 


^4 S^hort L^hat with the f\eader 

How fortunate it is for the human race that 
every man, woman, and child is lagged with an 
individual and identifiable face! If all faces were 
identical, like the labels on a brand of tomatoes, 
we would be living in a very mixed-up world 
When we think of it, life is mainly a continuous 
flow of experiences and contacts with people, 
different people. Suppose for a moment that 
Jones, the egg man, was the exact counterpart 
of Smith, the banker; that the face across the 
table might be that of Mrs. Murphy. Mrs, Cold- 
blatt t or Mrs. Trotsky— you couldn't be sure 
which* Suppose all the faces in the magazines 
and newspapers and on television were reduced 
to one male and one female type, what a dull 
thing life would be! Even if your face has not 
been your fortune, even if it is far from beauti- 
ful, still, nature really gave us all a pretty good 
break, for at least we are individuals and can 
each be thankful for having a face, good or bad. 

that is undeniably our own. 

This individuality of faces can be an intensely 
interesting study for anyone, and especially for 
anyone with the slightest talent for drawing. 
Once we begin to comprehend some of the rea- 
sons for the differences, our study becomes all- 
absorbing. Through our faces, nature not only 
identifies us but tells the world a good deal more 
about each of us. 

Our thoughts, our emotions and attitudes, 
even the kind of lives we live, register in our 
faces. The mobility of the flesh-that is, the 
power of expression— adds more than mere 
identity* Let us give more than casual attention 
1o the endless procession of faces moving in and 
out of our consciousness. Setting aside the psy- 
chological and emotional phases of expression* 
wc can express in simple language the basic 
technical reasons for the smile, the frown, and 
all the variations that we call facial expression. 
We say that a person can look guilty, ashamed, 

frightened, content, angry, smug, confident, 
frustrated, and a host of other ways too nu- 
merous to tabulate. A few embedded muscles 
attached to the bones of the skull provide the 
mechanics for every expression, and these mus- 
cles and bones are not complicated or difficult 
to learn! What a wealth of interest lies within! 

Let me say at the beginning that to draw a 
head effectively is not a matter of "soul search- 
ing" or mind reading. It is primarily a matter of 
interpreting form correctly in its proportion, 
perspective, and lighting. All other qualities 
enter the drawing as a result of the way that 
form is interpreted. If the artist gets that right, 
the soul or character is revealed. As artists, we 
only see, analyze, and set down. A pair of eyes 
drawn constructively and in correct values will 
appear to be alive because of craftsmanship, 
not because of the artist's ability to read the 
sitter's soul. 

The element that contributes most to the 
great variation of identities is the difference in 
the shapes of the skull itself. There are round 
heads, square heads, heads with wide and flar- 
ing jaws, elongated heads, narrow heads, heads 
with receding jaws. There are heads with high 
domes and foreheads, and those with low. Some 
faces arc concave, and others convex. Noses and 
chins are prominent or receding. Eyes are large 
or small, set wide apart or close together. Ears 
are all kinds of shapes and sizes. There are lean 
faces and fat faces, big-boned and small-boned 
ones. There arc long lips, wide lips, thin lips, 
full lips, protruding lips, and equal variety in 
the si/xs and shapes of noses* Vou can see that 
by cross multiplication of these varying factors, 
millions of different faces will be produced. Of 
course, by the law of averages certain combina- 
tions of factors are bound to reappear. For that 
reason people who are not related sometimes 
closely resemble each other. Every artist has 



had the experience of being told by someone 
that a head he has painted or drawn looks like 
that person or like an acquaintance or relative 
of the speaker. 

For the artist's purpose* the simplest plan is; 
first to think of the skull as Innng pliable and 
having taken a certain shape as a result of pres - 
sures—as if one squeezed a rubber ball into 
various shapes without changing its actual vol* 
ume. Although skulls have a great variety of 
shapes, actual measurements tally very closely, 
which means that the volume is about the same 
and only the shape is different. Suppose W6 
model a skull in soft clay> then, between boards, 
press it into various shapes. Thus out of the 
same volume we can make a narrow head, a 
wide head, flaring jaws, and all the other types. 
How heads got to lie this way is not our prob- 
lem, which is only to analyze and thus deter- 
mine the type of skull in the particular head 
we wish to draw. Later, when you become 
more familiar with the construction of the skull, 
vou will he able to show these variations so suc- 
cessfully that you will In- able to draw practically 
any type you choose and make it convincing. 

At the same time you can set down understand- 
ing^ any type before you. By the time you 
understand how the flesh is distributed over the 
Ixmes of the face, you will be able to vary the 
expression of the same head. The thing to ic* 
member is thai the skull is fixed in position, and, 
with the exception of the jaw. immovable, and 
(hat the flesh In mobile and ever-changing, and 
also_^flected by he altb^motion^and age. After 
the skull is fully matured, it remains the same 
through life and is a structural foundation for 
the varying appearance of the flesh. Therefore 
the skull is always the basis of approach* and 
all other identifying features are built into or 
upon it. 

From the skull we get the spacing of the fea- 
tures, which is more important to the artist than 
the features themselves. The features must take 
their proper places in our construction. If they 
do> we have little trouble in drawing them. Try- 
ing to draw the features without having located 
them properly is an almost hopeless task. Eyes 
do strange things; mouths leer instead of smile; 
faces take on weird and unholy expressions. In 
trying to correct a face that appears to be out 


of draw ing the chances arc that we will do 
just the wrong thing. Instead of moving an eye 
into its socket, m trim down a check; if a (aw 
line is out, we add more forehead. We should 
know, in first laying in the outline, that the 
whole head is in construction. This I am sure 
vou can learn from the pages that follow, 

The big difference between the completely 
amateur attempt and the well-grounded ap- 
proach is that the beginner starts by setting 
eyes, cars, noses, and mouths into blank white 
space, surrounded by some sort of an outline 
for the face. This is drawing in the two dimen* 
sions of height and width only. We must some- 
how get into the third dimension of thickness, 
which means that wc must draw the whole 
head as it exists in space and build the face upon 
it By doing so we are able not only to place 
the features, hut also to establish the planes of 
light and shadow, and, further, to identify the 
humps, humps, and creases as being caused 
by the underlying structure of muscle, bone. 

and fat* 

To help the beginner to start out with this 
third dimension, many approaches are suggested 
by various teachers. Some use an egg shape; 
others a cul>c or block. Some even start with 
one feature and start building the form out 
around it until the whole head is encompassed. 
However, all these involve many chances for 
error. Only the front view of the head looks 
Kkc an egg, and even that gives no line of the 
jawbone. In profile the head is not like an egg. 
As for the cube, there is no accurate way of 
setting the head into it. The head is totally 
unlike a cube from any angle. The only value 
the cube has in drawing heads is to help set the 
construction lines into perspective* as you will 
cam later. 

It seems more logical to start with a shape 
is basically like the skull, one that is simple 
draw and is accurate for purposes of con- 
struction. This can be done by drawing a ball 
resembling the cranium, which is round but 
flattened somewhat at the sides, and attaching 

the jawbone and features to it- Some years ago 
I hit upon this plan and made it the basis of my 
first book. Fun with a Pencil. I am happy to say 
that the plan was received with great enthusi- 
asm and is now widely used in schools and by 
professional artists. Any direct and efficient ap- 
proach must presuppose the skull and its parts 
and its points of division. It is just as reason- 
able to start drawing a wheel with a square as 
it is to start drawing a head with a cube. By 
cutting off corners and further trimming the 
square you could eventually come out with a 
fairly good wheel. You could also chip away 
the cube until you had a head. But at best it's 
a long way around. Why not start with the circle 
or ball? If you can't draw a ball, use a coin or 
a compass. The sculptor starts with a form of 
the general shape of the face attached to the 
ball of the cranium. He could not do otherwise. 
I present this simple plan in this volume since 
it is the only approach that is at the same time 
creative and accurate. Any other accurate ap- 
proach requires mechanical means, such as the 
projector, tracing, the pantograph* or using a 
squarcd-off enlargement. The big question is 
really whether you wish to develop the ability to 
draw a head, or whether you arc content to use 
mechanical means of projecting it. My feeling 
is that, if the latter were the case, you would not 
have been interested in this l>ook. When your 


bread and butter depends upon creating an abso- 
lute likeness* and you do not wish to gamble, 
make the best head you can by any means pos- 
sible. However, if vour work is to give you joy 
and the thrill of accomplishment, I urge you to 
aim at the advancement of your own ability. 
The drawings on pages 14 and 15 show the 
possibilities of developing all kinds of types out 
of the variations of skulls. After you have learned 
to set up the ball and plane, you can do almost 
anything you please with it, fitting all parts into 
the construction by the divisions you make 
across the middle line of the face. You have at 
your disposal jaws, cars, mouths, noses, and 
eyes, all of which may be large or small. The 






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cheekbones may be set high or low, the upper 
lip may be long or short, the cheeks full or sag- 
ging. By different combinations of these, you 
can prodwx* an almost endless variety of char- 
acters* It will be great fun for you to experiment. 
Although the construction of any head in- 
volves more or less the same problems, this book 
is divided into sections on drawing men, women, 
and children of various ages- As wc shall see. 
though the technical differences are slight, there 
is considerable difference in approach and feel- 

ing. The technical problems are explained in 
Part One, and the knowledge acquired from that 
is applied in the later sections on heads. 

To be able to draw hands convincingly is 
also very important to the artist, and in this 
field too there is little material available. So Part 
Five has been included to help you understand 
the principles of construction on which realistic 
rendering of hands must be based. 

Now let s get to work in earnest* 



f^art vJne: 

en 5 


Part Q 


Let v$ begin by establishing our common ob- 
jective. You may be interested in drawing as a 
hobby. You may be an art student attending 
drawing classes. You may be a young profes- 
sional, out of school, striving to better your work 
so that it will bring in more income. Perhaps 
you studied art many years ago and now have 
the time and incentive to take it up again. Per- 
haps you are well established in the field of 
commercial art, where competition is formi- 
dable, and are looking for something that will 
help you hold your place and. if possible, keep 
you moving forward. Whichever category you 
are in, this book will be helpful to you. because 
ft provides practical knowledge of the tech- 
niques of drawing heads, both for the complete 
beginner and to help the more advanced artist 
in those most frustrating moments when the 
head he is drawing seems to refuse to do his 

work justice. 

There must be a genuine basic motive be- 
hind any genuine effort. Ask yourself quite 
honestly. "Why do I really want to draw heads 
and draw them well?" Is it for the satisfaction 
of personal accomplishment? Does it mean 
enough to you to give up time from other things 
in order to learn? Do you hope someday to sell 
your work and make it your means of liveli- 
hood? Would you like to draw portraits, girls* 
beads for calendars, illustrations for magazine 
stories, the people in advertisements? Do you 
want to improve your drawing of heads to help 
sell your work? Is drawing a form of relaxa- 
tion to you, helping to relieve tension and clear 
your mind of worries and other problems? 
Search quietly and thoroughly for this basic 
motive, because if it is powerful enough, it will 
give your efforts the strength to withstand dis- 
couragement, disappointment, disillusionment, 
or even seeming failure. 

May I add one suggestion? Whatever your 

en 6 


motive, try not to be impatient. Impatience has 
probably been a bigger stumbling block in the 
way of real ability than anything else* Doing any- 
thing well, I'm sure, means hurdling obstacles 
of one kind or another most of the way to the 
goal. Skill is the ability to overcome obstacles, 
the Erst of which is usually lack of knowledge 
about the thing wc wish to do. It is the same 
in anything we attempt. Skill is a result of try- 
ing again and again, applying our ability and 
proving our knowledge as we gain it Let us get 
used to throwing away the unsuccessful effort 
and doing the job over Let us consider obstacles 
as something to l>c expected in any endeavor; 
then they wont seem quite so insurmountable 
or so defeating* 

Our procedure will be a little different from 
that of the usual textbook. In general, textbooks 
seem to confine the material solely to problem 
and solution, or to technical analysis. That, in 
my own belief, is one of the reasons why text- 
books are so difficult to read and digest. Even* 
concentrated creative effort involves a personal- 
ity, since skill is a personal matter. Since we are 
dealing not with organic material like nuts and 
bolts, but with human qualities like hope and 
ambition, faith or discouragement, wc must 
throw out the textbook formulas and consider 
personal achievement as the basic element of 
our planning. An instructor would not be very 
helpful if he gave his students only the words of 
a textbook, all cold hard fact, without feeling, 
without praise or personal encouragement. I can- 
not participate in all your personal problems, 
but I can certainly remember my own, and 
assume that yours will not be greatly different 
Therefore this book anticipates the solution of 
these problems even before you meet them. I 
believe that is the only way to handle this type 
of subject effectively. 
There is an element of joy in doing what you 



have proved to yourself to be right. It is my job 
here to give you the working materials with 
which to make your own effort successful rather 
than to show that anyone can succeed. Success 
comes only with personal effort* aided by what* 
ever knowledge the individual can apply along 
with the effort. If this were not true, we would 
be able to do anything in the world simply by 
reading books. We all know this is not true. 
There are books on almost any subject. Their 
value depends upon the amount of knowledge 
they contribute and on how well it is absorbed 
and put into practice* 

To draw heads well, the artist must detach 
his mind from the sitters emotional qualities 
and develop an objective Viewpoint Otherwise 
he could go on drawing the same head forever, 
almost each moment noting a subtle change of 
expression, or a different mood in the subject. 
One face can vary in a thousand ways, and a 
drawing must show the effect of a single instant* 
l-ct him think of the head as only so much fonii 
in space, like a piece of still life rather than 
as an ever-changing personality. 

To the beginner there is a certain advantage 
in drawing from a cast, or from a photograph, 
for at least the subject is not moving and he can 
regard it objectively. It is logical that our book 
begin purely from an objective approach with a 
form most like the average head, with average 
features and average spacings. Individual char* 
acteristics are much too complicated until we 
are able to tie them into a basic structure, one 
that is reasonably sound and accurate. Let us 
fix in our minds that the skull itself is the struc* 
ture and all the rest merely trimmings. 

Anatomy and construction can appear dull, 
but not to the builder. It might be dull to learn 
how to use a saw and hammer, but not when 
you arc making a building of your own. It may 
be hard to think of the head as a mechanism. 
But if you were inventing a mechanism* it would 
never lack interest Just realize that the head 
must be a good mechanism in order to be a fine 
head, and you will draw it with as much interest 

as you would have in nutting a part into a motor 
which you wanted to give a good performance. 

It is evident, then, that we need to start with 
a basic shape that is as nearly like the skull as 
we can get it. Looking at the cranium, we see it 
most nearly like a ball. Battened at the sides and 
somewhat fuller in the back than the front. The 
bones of the face, including the eye-sockets, the 
nose, the upper and lower jaw. are all fastened 
to the front of this balk Our first concern is to 
be able to construct the ball and the facial plane 
so that they operate as one unit which may be 
tipped or turned in any manner. It is of utmost 
importance that we construct the head in its 
complete and solid form, rather than just the 
visible portion of it. Naturally we cannot see 
more than half the head at any time. From the 
standpoint of construction, the half wc cannot 
see is just as important as the visible half. 

If you look at Plate I, you will note that I 
have treated the ball as if the under half were 
transparent so that the construction of the whole 
ball is made evident In this way the drawing 
on the visible side of the head can be made to 
appear to go all the way round, so that the area 
we cannot see can be imagined as a duplicate 
of what we do see. An old instructor of mine 
once said, **Be able to draw the unseen ear." 
which, at the time, puzzled me no end. I later 
realized what he meant, A head is not drawn 
until you can feel the unseen side. 

It must be obvious from the preceding that 
it is impossible to draw the head correctly by 
starting with an eye or nose, oblivious of the 
skull and the placement of features within it 
One might as easily try to draw a car by starting 
with the steering wheel. In all drawing no part 
can be as important as the whole, and the whole 
is always a fitting together of proportionate 
parts. We am always subdivide the whole into 
its parts, instead of guessing at the parts, hoping 
they will go together in the proper proportions- 
For example, it is easier to know that the fore- 
head is one-third of the face, and what its posi- 
tion is on the skull, than to build the skull from 


PLATE I. The basic shape is a flattened ball 

The cranium is more lilcc a ball than anything else. To represent the hall 
as a solid sphere, we must establish an axis, like the nail through the ball 
at the top. Through the centers established by the axis, we can divide the 
ball into quarters and again at the equator. Now if we were to slice off 
a fairly thin slice on each side, we will have produced a basic shape that 
very closely matches the cranium. The "equator" becomes the brow line. 
One of the lines through the axis becomes the middle line of the face. 
About halfway up from the brow line to the axis, we establish the hairline, 
or the top ol the (ace* We drop the middle line straight down ofl the ball. 
On this we mark 08 two points about equal to the space of the forehead, 
or from brow line to hairline. This gives us the length of the nose, and 
below that the bottom of the chin. We can now draw the plane of the face 
by drawing in the jaw line, which connects about halfway around the ball 
on each side. The ears attach along (he halfway line (up and down J at a 
distance about equal to the space of from the brows to the bottom of the 
nose. The ball can be tipped in any direction* 


PLATE 2, The all-important cross on the ball 

The "stoss" or the point (whe re tile brow line crosse s the middle l ine pf 
the facSis (he key poinj of Jb^fiQQSrUfd^L^the wh ole h ead, It deter, 
mines the position of the facial plane on the ball, or the angle from which 
wc sec the face* It is easily spotted on the model or copy. By . continuing 
the line up and down, wc establish the middle line of the whole ,hea<j. 
We draw (he two sides of the face and head from this line. By continuing 
the brow line around the head we can locate the ears. 

the forehead. Perhaps we have always thought 
of the head so much in terms oi Iwlonging to a 
definite individual that we have never considered 
it in a mechanical sense. It perhaps never occurs 
to us that a smile is a mechanical principle in 
action, as well as evidence of a beaming per* 
sonality. Actually the mechanics involved in a 
smile are the same as those used in a drawstring 
on a curtain* The string is attached to something 
fixed at one end. and to the material at the other. 
Pulling the string buckles the material The 
check plumps out in the same way. The working 
of the jaw is like a lunge or a derrick, but the 
hinge is of the ball-and-socket type. The eyes 
roll in their sockets like a ball bearing held in 
place. The eyelids and the lips are like slits in a 
rubber hall, wliich naturally close except when 
they are pulled apart. There is a mechanical 
principle beneath every expression put into 
action by the brain. Underlying the flesh of 
the face are muscles which arc capable of ex- 
pansion and contraction, just like all the other 
muscles of the body* We discuss this interest- 
ing material in more detail later. 

We start drawing the head bv establishing 
points on the bait and on the facial plane. Both 
the ball and the facial plane must l>c subdivided 
In order to establish those points. No matter how 
much you draw, how skilled you get to be t how 
well trained your eye becomes, you will always 
have to begin by building the head correctly, 
just as a carpenter, no matter how long he has 
worked* alwavs measures a l>oard before he cuts 
it. Construction of the face and head depends 
upon establishing the points of measurement. 
Any other way is bound to Ixs guesswork, which 
is a gamble any way you take it For the one 
time you guess right, there are many inevitable 

The most important point in the head from 
which to build the construction of the face is 
the point .immediately above the bridge of the 
nose, between the brows. This point remains 
always fixed and is indicated by the vertical line 
of the nose and the crossline of the brows. On 


the IkiII this is the junction of the "equator" and 
"the prime meridian/' the two lines that ait the 
ball in half vertically and horizontally. All meas- 
umiicuts spring from this poin t- About half- 
way up In- m tliU point in the top tenia of the 
head we get the hairline, and have therefore 
spaced off the forehead. Dropping down an 
equal distance below the crosspoint. we get th e 
l ength of Ac nose , since the distance from the 
tip of the nose to the brows Is. on an average, 
equal to the height of the forehead. Measunng. 
die same distance down, we get the jwttom gf . 
the chin, for the distance from the bottom of 

the chin to the base of the nose equals the space 
from there to the brows, and from that point to 
the hairline. Sojji one. two, threLspacs&JilL 
equal, down the middle line of the face. See 
Plates 3 and 4. I suggest you take paper and 
pencil and start drawing these heads, tipping 
them in everv possible direction. This can well 
bo your first real period of study. What you do 
now will affect everything you do from here 
on. Plate 4 will give you an idea of how to place 
the features properly. The placement is more 
important than the drawing of the features 
themselves. At this stage it is not too important 
that the details of the features be correct Get 
them to fall within the construction lines, so that 
the two sides of the face seem to match, what- 
ever the viewpoint. 

The next time you work with this book, turn 
to Plate 5, which is a simplified statement of the 
bone structure. No one detail of the bone struc- 
ture is of great importance, but its total shape 
is of paramount importance. Within the shape 
wc must locate the eye-sockets, spacing them 
carefully on either side of the middle line. We 
locate the two cheekbones opposite each other, 
and the bridge of the nose, which must lie on 
the middle line at the top and extend out from 
the middle line at the bottom. Wc locate the 
corner of the jaw and bring the jaw line down to 
the chin. Every head must be constructed so 
that all the features balance on the middle line. 
Plate 6 gives you more of the actual appearance 



and placement of the bones. Nolo how in these 
drawings you are aware of the construction all 
around the head, 1 personally try to get the 
feeling that these are not outlines, but the edges 
of solid forms that 1 could slide my hand around. 
Do you feel as if you could pick up these heads 
with your two hands and that you would find 
them just as solid in back as in front? That is 
what we are working for just now. 

Plate 7 shows the action of the head on its 
pivot point at the lop of the spine and at the 
base of the skull. We must remember that this 
pivot is well inside the roundness of the neck 
and deep under the skull It does not have a 
hinge action but a reflating action from appoint 
a little back ot the centei line o( the neck- So 
when the head is tipped backward the neck is 
squeezed and bulges somewhat, forming a crease 
at the l>ase of the skull When the head is tipped 
forward, the larynx or Adam's apple is dropped 
down and hides itself within the neck. In the 
lateral movements there is a strong play of the 
long muscles which attach to the skull behind 
the ears and down in front to the breastbone 
between the collarbones. At the back arc the 
two strong muscles which attach to the base of 
the skull to pull the head backward. To get a 
head to sit properly on the neck requires some 

knowledge of anatomy, which is discussed later. 
Some artists like to think of the head as being 
built of pieces which will Tit together and fall 
into place to give the understructure of the 
head. See Plate 8. This is especially helpful in 
suggesting the third dimension, that of thick- 
ness, in vour drawing. Much too often the face 
is drawn as something flat. We must consider 
the roundness of the muzzle— the two jaws as 
they come togelher, Because it is lost in the 
fleshiness of ihe face, we may forget the sharp 
curve of the teeth l>chmd the lips. This is even 
more pronounced in animals, to which a sharp 
deep bite may make the difference between 
life and death. Think of the front teeth as chop- 
pers and the Kick teeth as grinders* The fangs, 
or what we call eyetceth in human beings, are 
what an animal uses to hang on with t or to slash 
and tear. To impress upon yourself what the 
roundness of this area really is like, take a bite 
out of a piece of bread and study it. You will 
probably never draw lips flatly again* We must 
also remember that the eyes are round, though 
most of the time we sec them drawn flatly, like a 
slit in a piece of paper. The eyes. nose, mouth, 
and chin all have this three-dimensional quality* 
which cannot be sacriGced without losing the 
soliditv of the whole head. 


PLATE 3- The cross and the middle line determine the pose 
Get out uour pencil and pad- 
It is most important to begin at once to practice setting up the ball and 
facial plane. Do not worry too much now about the features. This is simply 
construction, which you will probably use for the rest of your life* Establish 
the cross. Try to think of the construction all around the head, so that the 
jaws attach halfway around on each side. Remember that the eyes and 
cheekbones arc below the brow line. The ears are about parallel with the 
lines of the brows and that of the nose. The cross almost suggests the face 
Mow. With this approach we can start drawing the whole head fn any pose. 



PLATE 4. Establishing the middle line 

Start placing the features carefully. 

If you have worked out the ball and plane and its divisions you will not 
have too much trouble in placing the features. However, you should 
realize that a feature will never lit on a head until it is placed correctly 
and in line with the construction lines of the whole head, Every artist mutt 
be prepared for a certain amount of struggle with construction, so do not 
allow yourself to get discouraged. Every head anyone draws depend* on 
construction, just as much as every building* every car, every other three- 
dimensional object does. That is what the artist s job really is in learning how 
to construct things in three dimensions on a two-dimensional surface* We 
have to think of each thing we draw in its entirety and see how its dimensions 
appear to us from our particular viewpoint Representation in three dimen- 
sions calls for knowledge and study* But such knowledge is no more difficult 
than that required for any other field. No matter how great your talent, 
talent has to work with knowledge to do anything well When the search 
for particular knowledge becomes pleasant as well, half the battle is won. 
Construction need not worn' you; it comes with practice. 

PLATE 5. Simplified bone structure 

At this point it will help a great deal in constructing the head to have a 
fairly clear idea of the bone structure. Though wc do not see the bones 
in detail we must think of them ftS the framework of the head. All the 
division points of the head are related to the bones, not to the flesh. The 
reason we chose the ball and plane as an approach now becomes apparent, 
for our approach is the skull itself, simplified and made understandable. 


PLATE 6. The bony parts within the construction 

Here we look at the bones more closely, realizing that, with the exception 
of the eheek*, all ihe (loli ot the lic^itl 1k\ over bone and i> influenced b.) 
the shape uf t J i* ■ bone. This \iinpltfirs oiti [>rol)lem eODfl&llbly; for gQflfll 
tor the jaw the bones of the skull arc allin a fixed position and move onl y^ 
moves. Only the flesh around the eyes, the cheeks, and 
mouth are capable of separate movement. 

1 . 

PLATE 7. Action of (he head on the neck 

PLATE 8, Building the head out of pieces 
If we think of (he head as made up of separate pieces fitted together, we 
find the pieces shaped and put together as they appear in the drawings 
in the top row. Note the rounded piece which would contain the lips. We 
refer to this part of the skull as the "muzzle " In drawing the mouth we 
must nuke it Bt around the curve of the upper and lower jaws and the 
front teeth. Too often the mouth is drawn as if it were flat against a flat 
surface- In the hotlom row the three drawings at the left show the lips and 
the structure under them. The eye must also lie in its socket, as shown 
at the right. The eyelids operate much like the lips in closing over a 
rounded surface. 



We began by considering the head as round. 
This is logical, Iwcmisc it is much more round 
than square. However, one of the later dis- 
coveries in art was the fact that incessant round- 
ness can become almost taring, and that a com* 
bination of roundness with squareness can pro- 
duce a vigor of execution which many of the 
old masters lacked. The effect of roundness tends 
toward the "slackness" so frowned upon by 
modern artists and critics. Although the round- 
ness exists, as photographs show, this type of 
rendition never seems to have the vigor of a 
drawing or painting in which the pianos are 
stressed* For this reason a photograph of a head 
ran never hope to compete with a good draw- 
ing as far as vitality of execution is concerned. 
It seems to me that the ideal lies somewhere be- 
tween the two extremes. A drawing that is too 
square can look as if it were chiseled out of 
wood or stone, with more hardness than the 
subject warrants. On the other hand, a drawing 
tliat is too round may have so much sweetness 
and smoothness that it seems to have no struc- 
ture at all beneath the surface; everything is 
polished and shinw Of the two. I prefer too 
much character to too little. Artists have found 
that by squaring the planes, softening them only 
enough to relieve their broken-stone effect, they 
achieve solidity and vitality without going to 
extremes. It also has been discovered that flat- 
tened planes tend to merge into an effect of 
mere roundness at a distance. When you inspect 
a projection on a large screen from close up, 
it is surprising how flat the image is. However, 
if you step back, this flatness disappears and the 
full roundness seems to take over* The truth is 
that the halftones which model a surface are 
really much more delicate than they appear 
to bc f and this truth has been a boon to 

For the time being, however, let us draw the 
planes as we feel they would really lie on the 

form. Through these planes we can interpret the 
true solidity as in no other way. It is better to 
learn tc turn the form in its true structure than 
to omit the turning entirely so it may appear flat 
and Without form. Remember that in a drawing 
the planes may be stressed considerably more 
than they can be in a painting, since we are 
dealing with fewer conflicting values, [ust now 
we are not concerned with values, or "shading/" 
as it is often called by the layman. We simply 
want to know what planes will give the basic 
form the general shape of the face and head. In 
other words, we want to get out of the round 
into more blocky forms, for this blockiness gives 
much more character, especially to men s heads. 
Turn to Plate (X I suggest that you study this 
page carefully in order to fig these planes in 
your memory. They are like chords from which 
you build music; they are basic, and almost any 
head ean be built on them. 

After you have memorized these planes, try 
tilting the head and incorporating the visible 
planes, as shown in Plate 10. From these planes 
yOU can go on to perspective, as demonstrated 
in Plate II. When you liavc mastered the con- 
struction of the ball and planes of the face, 
learned to use correct spacing and construction 
lines, and have assembled the planes, you have 
come a long way toward good drawing of heads. 
You should now t» able to spot many of the 
difficulties that arise, and make the corrections 
in your l>asic drawing. Many a portrait has been 
started, only for the artist to discover after days 
of work that the basic construction is at fault. 
Something must be moved— an eye, the nose, or 
the mouth— and a likeness or the desired expres- 
sion simply refuses to come about A very good 
way of studying construction is to draw the 
construction lines on a clipping of someone 
elses picture of a head, so that you can see the 
exact placement of all parts. Once you under- 
stand the construction yourself, it becomes 


woefully apparent to you when the other fel- 
low docs not. Some very clever artists do not 
really know how to construct correctly, and they 
spend many hours of added difficulty as a result. 
No "knack" of drawing heads can compete with 
sound knowledge. 

In Plates 12 to 16, I have planned a little fun 
for you. We start taking some liberties with the 
basic ball and planes. You will do this better 
without copy. We do some experimenting with 
tvpes. as I promised early in the book. To pro- 
duce different types we can vary the ideal or 
average measurements. The three divisions of 
the middle line of the face can be made un- 
equal, or exaggerated as you wish. Then we can 
van- the shape of the cranium and bony under- 
structure. I suggest that you play with expres- 
sions and characterizations. It is interesting and 
sometimes amazing what you can produce in 
the way of characters by variation in the spacing 
and l*asic shapes. You hardly know before fin- 
ishing what type you will end up with. On the 
Other hand, you can actually plan a given type 
and come very close to achieving the result you 
want. You will find yourself drawing heads that 
are most convincing, that have even a profes- 
sional look. I suggest you try beards, mustaches, 
high or low, thin or heavy eyebrows, big noses, 

little noses t jutting chins, receding chins, nar- 
row heads, wide heads, flaring jaws, and what 
not. Have some real fun while you are at it. 
You may or may not be interested in cartooning, 
but it is fun to draw characters, and you will 
find that you can do better than you might have 
thought possible. Watch the perspective and 
construction as carefully as you would in draw- 
ing any head, but exaggerate all you can. A good 
way to experiment is to jot down l>eforehand a 
little description of the character you wish to 
draw, then try to draw the head you have de- 
scribed* Next, ask someone else to give you a 
description of a character. Try that. Such prac- 
tice means that you can. at an early stage of 
your knowledge, begin to create, as you would 
if you were an illustrator. Stick fairly close to 
outline heads just now. but try to create the 
type you want. 

As an example, your description might be 
something like this: "John is big and raw-boned. 
His eyes are decpsct under shaggy brows. There 
are hollows under his cheekbones. He has a big 
nose, heavv jaw and chin. His hair, though thin 
on top, is bushy around his ears and the back 
of his head. His eves are small, dark, and 
beady-" Now try to draw John with the knowl- 
edge at your present command. 

PLATE 9. Basic and secondary planes of the head 

The planes of the head should l>c memorized, for through thorn we have a 
foundation for rendering the head in light and shadow. Begin with the 
basic planes (top t left), and study them until they are fixed in your mind. 
Then take up the secondary planes* From these sets of planes almost any 
head can be built. The surface varies with the individual character, but 
with the planes shown here you can produce a well-proportioned, manly 


PLATE 10. Tilting the head 

Planes help its (o maintain construction throughout the face and heat], 
within the construction lines or divisions of the basic ball and plane. The 
muzzle becomes easier to draw in all sorts of tilted positions. The slant 
of (he cheeks and the rounded rectangle of the forehead fall into place 
within (lie three divisions of the face. By thus representing the head in 
block form, we determine the angles throughout the head. This is our first 
step toward the perspective of the head. 




PLATE 1 1 . Perspective in drawing the head 

The handling of perspective marks the difference between the amateur 
:md the professional Every objeet drawn has to have an eve level or 
horizon, fell if not actually represented. On the left we sec the planes of 
the head as seen from al>ove or l*elow the eve level* If a head were as big 
as a building it would be affected by perspective in the same way as a 
building Is. 

PLATE 12. Variety in spacing creates types 

In order to create differences in type and character, wc may decide not 
to follow the basic measurements or divisions too meticulously. By varying 
the proportions of the three divisions of the lace, we come up with a good 
deal of variety in the results. There are thousands of possible combinations. 
It is fun to experiment with them. 

~ • 

PLATE 13. Always build on the middle line 

Always remember when drawing a hentl to l>alance the forms on both sides 
o( the middle line. The bony parts stay fixed, and the expression fits in 
between* All the jaw can do is open and close. The expression lies in the 
eyes, cheeks, and mouth, with some wrinkling of the forehead and around 
the eyes. What we do on one side, we must do on the other. 






PLATE 14. Creating any desired type 
Tlierc is iro reason why you can't lake all (ho liberties you wish with the 
ball and plane- The variety of types mentioned in the early part of the 
book arc drawn simply by building an imdcrstructure that is wide, square, 
Jong, narrow, or anything you wish* You have the basis of construction, 
so now just try some variations. 



PLATE 15- Types are built by varying the ball and the plane 

Look about among the people you know unci those you sec around you. 
Study them with a new understanding. See the combinations created by 
nature- Look from hairline to brow, then at the middle area from brow 
to bottom of nosc t and finally to the bottom of the chin. Look down the 
middle line of a face; study what you sec on each side* 

&i "> 


PLATE 16, Indicating character 

Once you know how the lines of construction are set up in a head, you 
can quickly analyze faces and skulls. Always look first for the bony shapes, 
and the location of the features. Then look for the flesh formations in the 
checks, around the mouth, and around the eyes. Such formations can be 
easily indicated. Sec if the cheekbones arc prominent and accented by 
shadow shapes under them. Look at the nose and the formation of the 
nostrils, the lips, and the creases between the lips and checks* Follow the 
shapes down into the chin and along the jaw line* These general character- 
istics, along with the whole shape of the head, arc more important than a 
photographic delineation of each square inch of surface. Older people are 
more interesting than the young for this sort of study, since the char* 
acteristies have had a chance to develop. 




Rhythm in drawing i$ something you feel* 
Rhythm must be closely associated with design, 
and every head has design* There is a related 
flow of line, one line working with or opposed 
to another lthythm is freedom in drawing, free- 
dom to express shapes, not meticulously, hut in 
harmony. Rhythm is the hand working with the 
hrain more than with the eye, the feel of the 
thing rather than the look of it* In drawing, 
rhythm comes with practice just as it does with 
a golf club. No one can tell you how to acquire 
it t but as you become conscious of it, you begin 
to recognize it when it is there. 

To try to describe rhythm in drawing let us 
say that the artist is feeling the simplified shape 
of the whole thing as he draws every part of it. 
You see his hands swinging over the paper be- 
fore the pencil goes down. He feels the stroke 
before he makes it. Rhythm need not always be 
cuives. Curves may oppose blockincss* Rhythm 
might be an accent where it will do most good. 
It is more often the suggestion of the form rather 
than the closely scrutinized detail of the form* 
Here again the artist leaves the camera far be* 
hind* for the camera must record detailed fact* 
and only when rhythm is set up before it can 
it catch this elusive quality. The onlooker senses 
rhythm in your work even if he cannot con- 
sciously define it. You sense rhythm in some 
handwriting, while other specimens are cramped, 
jerky, and scrawly* 

Some people have natural rhythm; others 
must strive to acquire it* Take the pencil in the 
palm of your hand between the thumb and first 
finger rather than holding it as you would to 
write between tight, cramped fingers. Swing it 

over your paper, using your wrist and arm and 
keeping your fingers still That is the way to 
draw a rhythmic line. You can train your hand 
to draw, instead of using the fingers. Move- 
ment becomes associated with the whole arm 
rather than with the fingertips. Draw things 
large for a while. George Brigman, the famous 
anatomy teacher, used to illustrate his lectures 
by drawing with a crayon on the end of a four- 
foot stick. Some of his anatomy drawings were 
many times larger than life, and they were 

Rhythm is all about us, but we must train 
ourselves to see and recognize it* It might be 
described as the longest line, straight or curved, 
that you can make before the direction of the 
edge changes. A long direct line is more expres* 
sive than a myriad of little whisker)* lines* An 
arrow in flight is a perfect example of rhythm* 
The movement of water or waves is another* 
'Hie arc of a baseball in the air. the way a fielder 
drops his hands in the line of flight as he catches 
the ball, the movement of the forms in a wo- 
man's hair-all have rhythm* We might call it 
the uninterrupted flow of line which seems to 
reflect the movement of the artist s hand. 

I cannot tell you how to acquire it, but I do 
believe you can. Awkwardness comes from lack 
of training; rhythm from trained organization, 
or coordination, perhaps both— knowledge and 
ability working together* Rhythm is one thing 
no camera or projector can ever give you. You 
feel it and strive to express it, or you don't. 
Swing that pencil over your paper just to draw 
a free line. Nobody ever does it too well the 
first time he tries. 

PLATE 17. Rhythmic lines in the head 

It is interesting to search for the rhythmic lines in faces. You will End 
rounded or curved lines in opposition to angular and hlocky lines- The 
blocky treatment helps to get away from the tight photographic approach. 
Then the head looks drawn, not traced. There is charm in curves hut 
square forms have weight and solidity. You can produce happy results 
by combining the two instead of merely copying every waver ol everv 
edge in exact outline. In this way you set a feeling of design, and al the 
same time render solid form 



Heads will naturally vary in measurement 
and proportion- However, any artist will find it 
most practical to cany in his mind as basic 
measurements a scale of proportions, built on 
averages and simplified* The front view of the 
head fits quite well into a rectangle that is three 
units of measurement wide, and three and a half 
deep. This scale leaves a little space beyond 
the ears on each side* The half measurements 
of these units locate the eyes and nose and help 
in placing the mouth, and also put the line of 
the eyes at the halfway division of the whole 
head from top to bottom, as it should be and as 

it averages out in a large percentage of actual 
faces* This method of unit measurement locates 
the hairline and the three front divisions of the 
face. The side view of the head fits exactly into 
a square three and one-half units in each direc- 
tion. You can establish your own unit; it is the 
proportions that arc important. 

These proportions, shown in Plate 18, have 
been worked out after a great deal of research 
and are offered to meet the need for a simple 
and practical scale that is readily usable. This 
scale fits perfectly with the ball-ami -plane ap- 

PLATE 18. Proportions of the male head 

The standard proportions for a man's head are worked out here for the 
front view and the side view* The scale may easily be memorized. The 
head is three and one-half (optional) units high, nearly three units wide 
(to include the ears), ami three and one-half units from lip of nose to 
the back of the head* The three units divide the face into forehead, nose, 
and jaw. Ears, nose to brow, lips and chin arc each one unit. So you may 
start in this way to draw a head in any size you wish, using your own unit 
of measurement. 


I I 

PLATE 19. Drawing the head in units 

Here you sec how the scale works out in practice. The circle represents 
the ball, and the width is the width of the head, including the cars. We 
find thai the face is about two units wide and that the eyes fall between 
the middle halves or at the quarter points of the two units (sec upper 
right). This coincides with the divisions of the Kill and plane with which 
you arc already familiar. 




1 do not see any material advantage to the 
artist in knowing the names of all the muscles 
and bones ol the head, hut it is of great impor- 
tance to him to know where thev are, where they 
attach, and what they do* It is important to 
know that some muscles are attached directly 
to bone at both ends, while others arc attached 
to bone at one end and to other bands of mus- 
cles at the other. Hie former have the function 
of moving the Ixniy structure. The latter move 
the flesh. Plate 20 shows the muscles and how 
they are connected. 

The most important muscle of the bead is the 
powerful muscle that closes the jaw. You feel it 
at the corner of the jaw. just below and in front 
of the ear. Circus acrobats have been known to 
dangle the weight of the whole body at the end 
of a rope by biting a bit of hard rubber attached 
to the rope end. The jaw is also attached to a 
muscle that spreads out ovar the side of the 
cranium. These two muscles give the power to 
crunch and grind food in the mouth. 

A very marvelous mechanical principle tunc* 
tions in the eyes and mouth. Both arc slits in a 
circular sheet of muscle. If you took half of a 
hollow rubber ball and cut a slit in it, without 
stress on the rubber, the slit would close itself. 
Under tension you could easily pull the slit open* 
The dropping of the weight of the jaw opens 
the mouth. To open the mouth wide is a con* 
scions effort. To keep the mouth closed really 
requires very little effort— a piece of knowledge 
that can l>e used to great advantage at times. 

Veiy important are the little ribbon-like mus- 
cles which open the lips laterally, pulling at 
the corners of the mouth. These are the "smile 
muscles/ 1 They are the ones that puff the checks 
by contracting within the flesh. When they pull 
diagonally upward and a smile flashes, great 
things may happen, far beyond mere mechan- 
ics. Remember these as the "happy muscles/* 
They attach at the cheekbones and run diago- 

nally down the cheeks to the muscles around 
the lips. 

Note the muscles which mn down the side of 
the nose past the corners of the mouth to the 
chin. These are the "unhappy muscles." Being 
attached to the bone around the nose at one 
end and to the jaw at the other, they can pull 
the lips upward in a snarl or downward in a 
leer* Working from both ends, they expose the 
teeth the way an animal shows its fangs. These 
muscles are operating from both ends when 
you brush your teeth. They seem to pull down- 
ward when you are lifting a heavy weight, or in 
extreme muscular effort of the body, like run- 
ning. Tatty make round corners at the mouth, 
where in the smile the corners are pulled out 
and upward. Try to associate the happy and 
the unhappy muscles, for they are the basis of 
most facial expressions. The wrinkles at the cor- 
ners of the eyes are simply caused by the flesh 
of the cheeks* buckling by the upward pull of 
the "happy muscles" below the cheekbones. The 
bulging of the cheeks also causes the crease or 
fold of flesh under the eyes in a smile. It is more 
pronounced in some faces than others. As the 
"happy muscles" pull at each side in the smile, 
the nostrils may flare a little and l>ecome more 
evident, which is one of the things that help to 
make a face smile. 

The dimple or downward line occurring in 
the lower part of the smiling cheek is caused 
hy the little open space between the "unhappy 
muscle" and the jaw muscle. In old age this de- 
pression becomes very evident. In the young 
face it is a dimple. 

The rest of the face muscles are simply what 
we may call "wrinkle muscles." There's one at 
the inside corner of the brows near the nose. 
This one lifts the comer of the eyebrow as in 
worry or in an expression of pleading. The "un- 
happy muscle" pulls down the inside corner of 
the brow in a frown. The two "wrinkle muscles" 



above the brows also wrinkle the forehead, since point of the chin. The depression between these 

they are contracting i>encath the flesh, but arc 
also attached to the flesh. 
There arc two small "wrinkle muscles" at the 

muscles may account for a dimple in the middle 
of the chin. They also cause the chin to buckle 
into little humps in some expressions. 

PLATE 20, Anatomy of the head 

When you are studying the muscles of the face, get in Iront of a mirror 
and give them a good working over- From that and from these drawings 
you will learn a great deal about expression and tlic why of it 

Give some consideration to the muscles of the ncck t for you usually 
have to draw a head on a neck. Tbc two diagonally placed muscles that 
turn the head are attached to the s-kull just behind the cars at the top. 
and to the breastbone, which lies Iwtwccn the two collarbones, at the 
bottom. Two strong muscles attached to the back of the head underneath 
the l>ack of the skull hold the head up or tip it backward. The head drops 
forward mostly of its own weight. 

To know these muscles will help you tremendously in drawing heads. 
















PLATE 21. How the muscles function 
The drawings here, though not very pleasant, arc important to the artist 
if he intends to give his characters expression. The smile is most important 
in commercial art and advertising. In illustrating fiction you may have to 
draw an angry face occasionally but the great majority of the lace's you will 
draw are pleasant ones. However, it is much easier to draw a "dead-pan" 
face than a veiy happy one. What we want to do is to keep the face that 
should reflect happiness from appearing as dead-pan or even leering. So 
study this page well 


PLATE 22. The muscles from various angles 

Altar you have learned the muscles of the head, try placing them within 
the head in various poses. Tip and turn the head and line up the muscles 
to balance on each side of the middle line of the face. You will be surprised 
to see how easily they will begin, to fall into place within the construction 
plan vou have already learned. 




Only a few artists scorn to have more than a 
hazy idea of the anatomy of the head, or of how 
the muscles function. If faces were expression- 
less we might manage with only a little of this 
knowledge. It is argued that we can depend 
upon photographs for expression. Frankly, many 
artists do just that My contention is that one 
can learn the necessary principles of anatomy 
in two or three short periods of study, say three 
evenings- When so little effort is required, why 
,not spend it to learn something that will always 
be valuable to you. 

Every expression is entirely dependent upon 
a very few muscles lying under and embedded 
within the flesh. Knowing where the muscles lie 
and what they do is the difference between 
guesswork and knowledge. An expression must 
carry conviction, and it's easier to convince when 
you know the facts you arc dealing with. 

For many years I seemed to have great diffi- 
culty in drawing smiles. I had taken it for 
granted that the smile creases began at the nos- 
trils and ran straight to the comers of the lips. 
Actually the smile creases run well outside of 
the corners of the mouth and around them and 
point for a little way toward the side of the 
chin. This is because the lips lie in an oval* 
shaped sheet of muscle and the creases form at 
the outer edges of this muscle. The small ribbon- 
like muscles which lead down from the cheek- 
bones are attached to this sheet of muscle at the 
outer edge and cause the smile creases. In some 
smiles the pull of these little muscles actually 
causes the corners of the mouth to round out 
rather than to end in a sharp point For some 
reason I had not grasped this in my early studies. 
The experience proved the value of going back 
to the source when you are in trouble. 

One thing that is important in the smile is the 
wav folds of flesh appear under the eyes. *Somc- 
times these add a good deal of mirth to a smile; 
sometimes they do not. I cannot tell you why. 

Some faces have this characteristic to a pro- 
nounced degree, while in other faces it is hardly 
evident The difficulty is to make the folds ap- 
pear natural ami a part of the smile rather than 
to have them look like pouches under the eyes. 
These folds are easier to paint than to draw, 
because in painting they may be rendered in 
light values, but in a drawing we are usually 
using a black medium, and the folds get too 
black. The same is true ol the wrinkles that show 
at the outer corners of the eyes in a smile. If 
these are too black, they l<x>k like crow's feet. 
Many smiles are spoiled because the lines around 
the nostrils are too heavy and black, suggesting 
a sneer more than a smile, or making the face 
look as if it were smelling something unpleasant. 

Another valuable hint about the smile is that 
it shows more of the upper teeth than of the 
lower ones. That means both a greater number 
of teeth, and more area of the teeth themselves. 
The corners of the lips are pulled away from the 
teeth, causing a hole or dark accent within the 
corners of die lips. The teeth should never run 
right into the comers as if they were pressed 
against the lips all the way around. The pull of 
the muscles stretches and flattens the lips, but 
the inward curve of the teeth is still there 
and becomes even more evident because of the 
shadows cast inwardly by the lips at the comers. 
There should be some toning down of the teeth 
as they go back. The two front upper teeth are 
the ones to highlight. It is better not to try to 
model the teeth too much, or to draw lines be- 
tween them. This again is because almost any line 
may be too black. The lines between the teeth 
are really very subtle and delicate. Often the 
teeth should be suggested rather than drawn in 
detail— unless you are selling toothpaste. Anders 
Zoni was a master at painting teeth in a smile. 

Plate 23 shows the mechanics of the mouth. 
At the top are the bones without the flesh. We 
must always remember that the upper jaw is 









PLATE 23. Mechanics of the mouth 

The lips and jaw can hardly be drawn convincingly without an under- 
standing of the muzzle and how it works. Beginners draw the mouth as if it 
lay on a flat plane. The curve of the teeth in the rounded jaw must be 
considered, and the fullness of the lips themselves must be felt. 



fixed in its relationship to the rest of the face* 
and all the movement lakes place in the lower 
jaw. The curve of the upper teeth remains un- 
changed and is affected only 1>\ the viewpoint* 
The dropping of the lower jaw may add as much 
as two inches to the length of the face. When 
the upper and lower teeth are separated, be sure 
to compensate by dropping the chin proportion- 
ately- And. once again, always consider the 
roundness of the muzzle all around the lips* 

Plate 24 gives yon a real look at the eyes* We 
are too likely to think of the eve as something 
round (the iris) on something white (the eye- 
ball). Until we analyze the structure we are 
not conscious of how much the lids are affected 
by the roundness of the eyeball. The reason is 
that we see only a little more than a quarter of 
the eyeball between the lids. But the curve of 
the eyeball is very evident from corner to comer 
of the lids. An eye without lids is. of course, a 
gruesome sight, but wc must make these lids 
seem to lie on the rounded surface* The lids 
operate almost exactly like the lips. Except in 
the front View of the face the drawing of one 
eye is never an exact duplicate of the drawing 
of the other. When the iris of one eye is at the 
inner corner, that of the other is at the outer 
comer. There is a slight bulge of the lens of the 
eye which travels around under the upper lid. 
Think of the eyes as two halls working together 
on a stick. As you turn the stick you also turn 
the eyes. Think of the lids as the covers over 
the two balls, in principle like the drawing in 
the lower right-hand corner of Plate 24. Draw 
many eyes, first separately, then in pairs. Clip 
out some pictures of eyes and copy them* 

In studying the mouths shown in Plate 25, 
consider the lips and teeth separately for the 
lime being. Try drawing these mouths, and also 
get a mirror and draw your own moulb. Move 
the lips* Tilt your head at various angles. Notice 
that the teeth arc more or less indicated, not by 
lines between them, but by the gums above and 
the accents of the dark area below* It is very 
easy to overemphasize the detail in teeth, so that 


they do not seem to stay within the mouth* 
Overemphasized teeth can spoil an otherwise 
good head* 

Noses and ears arc shown in Plate 26* Noses 
and ears are affected by viewpoint and perspec- 
tive as much as lips are. In other words, these 
all look the way they do because of the angle 
from which you see them. You can see whv it is 
so important to establish the viewpoint of the 
whole head, l>eforc wc can draw any of these 
features. When drawing from life it is most im- 
portant that the pose of the head has not been 
changed between the drawing of separate fea- 
tures, since that will throw the drawing off 
completely* A nose must sit within the construc- 
tion lines of the whole head and over the middle 
line, or it simply will not look right* The nose 
and ear should be drawn together, so that their 
relationship is established. The ear looks very 
different from the front, side view, or back. See 
that the nose is at right angles to the line of the 
eyes and brows* When the brows tip, the nose 

tips: in fact, everything in the face tips* 

Plate 27 gives some examples of laughing and 
smiling faces* Though these are restricted to line 
alone, you can feci the muscles operating in the 
flesh* What I call the sharp-cornered smile is 
shown on the fellow in the upper right-hand 
corner* The faces in the middle of the top and 
bottom rows have a round-cornered laugh* This 
must come from the subject, for a round comer 
badly drawn can easily become a leer. Smiles 
require much study. You can learn a lot with 
your mirror. 

In Plate 28 there are some examples of other 
expressions, which may give you some idea of 
how the muscles of the face operate in expres- 
sions that arc not smiles. The action of the lips 
can vary a great deal. The basis of most expres* 
sions is usually in the mouth* For expressions in 
cartoons, the cartoonist keeps a mirror handy, 
since he can assume the expressions he wants 
more easily than he can explain it to a model. 

In using the mirror look for the action of the 
muscles only; you need not even attempt a like- 



ncss of yourself* The mirror gives the artist one 
big break— he alwavs has a head and hands avail- 
able to draw from* With two mirrors set properly 
he can get a side view or a three-quarter view, 
or make the left hand appear as the right and 
vice versa* 

With expressions, it certainly does no harm 
to take photographs of a lot of different ones. 
You can take pictures of your face in the mirror 
and thus stock up on various expressions for 
your files. I do not like to sec an artist make a 
crutch of his camera, for I will always maintain 
that a man can get more into a drawing of his 
own than any tracing, pantograph, photostat, or 
projection can give. Photographs have certain 
distortions that always get into a drawing made 
from one, unless it is a freehand drawing— and 
sometimes even then. I think these distortions 
come from the fact that we see with two eyes. 


while the camera has only one* The distance of 
the camera from the subject also has a lot to do 
with it* Trace a photograph and you will see 
these things for yourself* Your artistry seems to 
go out the window, no matter how you try to 
eliminate that photographic look. 

Various types and different expressions are 
illustrated in Plate 29. 1 have taken considerable 
liberty in creating both* It is good training to 
develop a type, then make several drawings of 
him showing different expressions. Make him 
smile, frown, pout, laugh, worry*, or whatever 
else you can. It is really lots of fun, and all the 
time you are increasing your stock in trade* 

In Plate 30 the face has been analyzed to 
show the structural reasons for the various lines 
and bumps* When you understand these, you 
can apply your knowledge in drawing faces of 
people of different ages, as Plate 31 shows. 



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PIATE 24. Mechanics of the eyes 

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PLATE 25. Movement of the lips 





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PLATE 26. Construction of the nose and the ears 

The appearance of the nose and of Ihc cars is affected by the point of 
View irom which they arc drawn* The real problem is much more one of 
setting them into the construction of the head in their correct positions 
than one of drawing the actual details themselves. Noses and ears vary 
widely in shape but not a great deal in baste construction. The nostrils 
should be set evenly on the line running from the base of the nose to the 
base of the car* It is good practice to draw noses and ears from every angle 
until vow are completely familiar with their placement in any pose of 
the head* 


PLATE 27. Expression— the laugh 

PLATE 28. Various expressions 


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PLATE 29, Characterization through expression 


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PLATE 30- Analysis of facial markings 

It is not difficult to memorise the size, shape, and placement of the muscles 
of the face. If you do this, yon will thereafter always be able to identify 
the lines, humps, and bumps in the face. Older people are better than 
young ones as sources for this information, since the older one gets the 
more lines and wrinkles develop. We can learn to separate the small wrinkles 
from the facial lines* The small wrinkles are associated with the shrinkage 
of the flesh between the muscles, whereas the lines arc associated with 
the edges of the muscles themselves. The small wrinkles of the flesh are 
seldom drawn or painted since they eventually make a network of wrinkles 
over the whole face. More important are the forms, and the large creases 
or lines between them. These are the long creases of the cheeks, those 
around the mouth, and those over and under the eyes* The muscles are 
quite pronounced in the male head. When we speak of a strong face, we 
arc speaking mainly of muscle and bone structure* 

Only in expressions with raised eyebrows need we worry about wrinkles 
in the forehead. We can safely leave out most of the wrinkles n>ost of the 
time and concentrate mainly on the lines, the bones, and the soft forms of 
the flesh beneath the surface* It is a safe bet that the more wrinkles you 
eliminate, the better your drawing will be liked. Remember that wrinkles 
are never black lines on the actual face, but very delicate lines of shadow 
which can be seen only a few* feet away. That is why we can so easilv 
eliminate them and still get a likeness. The deeper creases are evident for 
some distance, as are the shadows of the planes of the head* Never draw 
a face as a map or network of wrinkles. 


C 4J*H 

PLATE 31. Drawing faces of different ages 

You can easily learn to age a face by adding the forms of the emaciating 
muscles and the creases that fall between them. The cheekbones, the 
corners of the jaw, and the bone of the chin become more evident b the 
aging process. The cartilages of the nose and ears seem to get larger as 
wc get older. The chief change tak<*s place in the cheeks and around the 
eyes and mouth. The flesh sags at the sides of the chin and along the sides 
of the jaw. Pouches form under the eyes, and deeper lines at the corners 
of the eyes. The lips tend to get thinner and move inward, so that more 
of a straight line between the lips is produced. The lines develop from 
the corners of the mouth down around the sides of the chin. The flesh 
above the eyelids droops and the brows seem to drop inward toward the 
bridge of the nose. A few deeper lines develop across the forehead and 
between the brows. These can be subordinated, to avoid overemphasizing 
them. The hair, of course, thins out in varying degrees, so that the hair- 
line moves up and back and there is considerable thinning of the liair at 
the top of the head. However, wc draw the head from the same basic 




When wc go from line into tone we take a 
very large step, for tone is the effect of light on 
form. Although drawing need not carry all the 
subtlety of tone that painting does, still we must 
consider values as more or less related. It is bet- 
ter at first to light your subject strongly, or 
choose a subject that is more or less in simple 
light and shadow. Shadows arc really shapes to 
draw, shapes that occur over the surface of the 
form, so that we must consider both, the shape 
of the fonn itself and the shape of the shadow 
on it Therefore keep the lights and shadows as 
simple as possible. Hold the light down to one 
source to begin with. Later on. you may want to 
introduce some Kick lighting, but never have 
both lights shining on the same area* This cre- 
ates a falsity of lighting, and therefore false- 
looking form, for form really exists only as light, 
halftone, and shadow define it. If the light were 
not there, wc would see no form. 

In very diffused lighting, we see form much 
the way we represent it in outline only. If light 
is coming from all directions the form flattens 
out, because fonn turning away from the fight 
source is what makes halftone, shadow, and cast 
shadow. By cast shadow we mean that the 
shadow has continued to another plane like the 
wall, or down across the neck under the chin. 
Cast shadows have edges of thefr owu t which 
depend on the direction from which the light is 
coming. The difference lies in the fact that in or- 
dinary shadow the form has simply turned so far 
that the light can no longer reach it. On a round 
fonn there is halftone l>efore we reach the 
shadow, and the halftone merges with the 
shadow. On a square or angular form the 
shadow sharply follows the edge which cuts 
off the light, or around which the light cannot 
reach. The nose casts a shadow in a bright light; 
the cheeks. I>eing rounder and more gradual as 
a curve, blend the shadow with the light. 

This very blending of light into shadow may 

make the difference between a good drawing 
and a bad one. If the edge of the shadow is 
graduated or blended too much with the light. 
the drawing loses character; if it is not blended 
enough the drawing may become hard and brit* 
tic. A good way to judge is to ask yourself; Am 
I holding evidence of the plane or have I lost it? 
If you have softened the edge so much as to 
have lost the plane, the drawing is bound to 
take on a smooth, photographic look. For this 
reason, planes have to be established when you 
are drawing from a photograph, since they are 
not apparent in the photograph itself. 

In drawing planes, we can do much to sug- 
gest the direction of the plane by the direction 
of line, without much change in values {see 
Plate 34). For this reason a drawing can be 
made to appear very solid, where a wash draw- 
ing or painting may lose much of the character. 
This is a principle which is used effectively in 
pen drawing, that of making the strokes follow 
the direction of the plane. It can be used in 
other mediums that are not areas of flat tone. 

I hope the reader will give particular atten- 
tion to Plate 33, since I consider this page one 
of the most important in the (wok. The drawings 
here encompass practically all the material of* 
fered up so far in this book. Here wc have the 
plan of construction, the anatomy, the planes, 
and the finished rendering combined in a single 
pose of an individual head. 

In addition to studying this page carefully. 
End some material of your own. See if you can 
render in separate drawings what you believe 
must be the correct proportions, anatomy, and 
planes of the particular head. You will leani 
more by doing this than by copying a hundred 
heads as they appear in your copy material. It 
will definitely point up anything lacking in your 
knowledge thus far. When you have, to your 
satisfaction, worked out the several stages, paste 
them on a sheet and hang them up in the place 



where you work, as a constant reminder. If you 
have worked them out convincingly you can 
well lake pride in the fact. They will be of in- 
terest to anyone, for through them you have 
stated your knowledge in no uncertain manner. 
They serve to help you memorize the qualities 
which should go into a well-drawn head, but 
which, of course, could not be incorporated into 
a single drawing with each stage in evidence. 
In the finished drawing, I believe you will (eel 
this kickground of effort, which I hope will con- 
vince you that drawing heads is more than mere 

Plates 35 through 39 may help you in the 
matter of technical rendering, though it is my 
feeling that technique should l>c left very much 
to the student himself* The problems of propor- 
tion, anatomy, and planes are basically the same 
for all of us, but technical solutions of those 
problems arc* to a large extent, an individual 

Unfortunately, the student is usually unable 

to sec many good examples of head drawings, 
because so few are published. In the past dec- 
ade there have been few men in the field good 
enough to have their drawings published regu- 
larly, aside from the fact that many artists abil- 
ity to draw the head is concealed by their use 
of mediums. 1 would like to call attention to the 
work of William Ohcrhardt, who stands almost 
alone in drawing the head. I hope the reader 
ma)' at some time come across a few of the 
many drawings of his that have appeared in 
publications. The schools in England seem to 
have produced many more fine examples of 
head-drawing than those in America have- I 
think this is because the young American artist 
tends to turn to photographs for material before 
he has any real knowledge of the head. The 
drawings tn this book are offered humbly, 
since there are many draftsmen whose skill ex- 
ceeds mine, but because of the lack of helpful 
books on the subject, I submit whatever I have 
to offer hopefully. 


PLATE 32. Modeling the planes 
As a basis for learning to show light on form, turn to Plate 9 and make a 
drawing of the planes of the head as shown there. It will help you a great 
deal with the material to follow. Let us understand that we'ean depict 
solid form only as it appears in light, halftone, and shadow. The shadows 
get darker as the form turns away from the light. A single light is always 
simple to draw, for more than one light cuts up the shadow tones, making 
everything more complicated. Think now in terms of flat areas in varying 
tones, and forget surfaee wrinkles entirety* 

PLATE 33, Combining anatomy, construction, and planes 

This page is one of the most important in the book, since ft shows the 
stages of drawing a head from the anatomy ftnd construction, through the 
outline, to the planes and the final completion of the drawing. It would 
be impossible to follow without considerable study of the preceding 
information, not in order to copy this head, but to draw one yourself. 
Study this page carefully; you will find it invaluable for reference. 

PLATE 34. Building lone with planes 

This page shows how (he planes may be treated as straight flat surfaces, 
each carrying its own value between light and dark. The very light planes 
should have very little tone and !>c treated very delicately. By directing 
the stroke, you can make the plane turn without changing the value 
more than slightly. You get more solidity if you make all the planes in the 
light a little lighter than they appear, and those in the shadow a little 


PLATE 35. Every head is a separate problem 

Every head is an individual assemblage o( shapes, lines, and spaces. Be* 
cause of the variations of skulls and features* together with variations 
of spacing, millions of combinations occur Forget every other face and 
concentrate on the one you are drawing* Accent the individual forms 
wherever you can. Start drawing real people, and collect clippings and 
photographs to practice from, Don't be tempted to trace; (ust draw. 

PLATE 36, Types of character 

The character in a head is the result of the individual bones and muscles, 
as they arc shown by careful const ruction and spacing. But the beauty 
of a drawing will always be in the wav you use line and tone and the 
interpretation of light and shadow on the forms* You may experiment in 
your own way and develop your owti approach and technique. Sometimes 
an unfinished study is more attractive than the completely executed drawing. 


PLATE 37. Smiling men 

Smiles that radiate happiness are difficult for any artist They are much 
easier to render in an outline drawing than a tonal drawing. If your draw- 
ing of heads must provide an income you wilt do well to practice drawing 
smiles from clippings, since a model can rarely hold a genuine smile for 
very long. Study particularly the forms around the corners of the mouth, 
and the forms of the cheek** 

PLATE 38. Older men 

The faces of older men give the artist more to *"gcl hold of* in the way of 
forms and lines. Note, however, that fn the faces on this page most of the 
surface wrinkles have been eliminated and onlv the main lines and forms 
stated* The impression of age fe maintained without the incidental and 
insignificant wrinkles. 

PLATE 39. Characterization 

Here construction, lighting, and expression arc combined. This is charac- 
terization, the way a (ace looks at a given moment. Expression is really 
no more than a distortion of the relaxed forms of the face. Such distortion 
causes movement in the muscles below and consequent change on the 
surface. Therefore it is important to know how those muscles move (see 
Plate 21). 



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bf American adveuttsinc and magazine illustra- 
lion the ability to draw women's heads effec- 
tively is the greatest boon to the poeketbook. 
While commercial art has many departments, no 
other is quite so lucrative. This skill opens the 
door of advertising agencies, editorial offices, and 
calendar producers as nothing else can* Portrait 
drawings are much easier to sell than finished 
paintings, since the price is much lower. Draw- 
ings, nicely framed, can be hung anywhere in 
the house, while painted portraits are more or 
less restricted to the space over the living-room 
111 a ntc I piece. A man often prefers a nicely done 
drawing of himself or his wife or children to an 
elaborate painting. Fortunately, the artist can 
make such drawings inexpensively, in much less 
time titan a painting takes, and he can well af- 
ford to keep his price within the normal family 
budget- There are possibilities in portrait draw* 
ing which should not be overlooked* It is pleas- 
ant work. It can be part-time work, and it is re- 
munerative- If you do studies for one family, 
others become interested. Such studies make at- 
tractive pictures for dens, halls, offices, and other 
places where furnishings are not elaborate* 
There is hardlv a mother who would not like to 
have sketches of her children. There are many 
artists in this count rv alreadv doing very well 
at making portrait drawings. The prices usually 
range from $50 to $150 and even higher, which 
is not too bad for a few hours* work- These 
sketches may even be done from camera studies 
with the personal ability and knowledge added 
to the photographic appearance. 

When you arc drawing women's heads, be 
sure to use freedom and looseness of technique 
in representing the hair. Usually simple planes 
are much more effective than the photographic 
representation of every strand or curl. Another 
important quality, which I have pointed out 
earlier, is a blocky effect. The camera sees 

everything in its roundness; the artist sees its 
rhythms and its angles. 

For some reason a little masculinity is much 
more tolerable in a woman's head than round- 
ness and femininity is in a man's. The fashion 
experts seem to pick the lean-faced, angular- 
jawed, and bony types of models oftencr than 
the purely feminine types. It may be that to get 
the rest of the figure slim enough to go on a 
fashion page, a bony face is required. Somehow 
the appearance of bone in the face does seem 
to give more character to a woman, just as it docs 
to a man. Perhaps most of us admire leanness 
more than plumpness because leanness is hard 
to attain and keep. At least in that we have 
changed since the days of the old masters. 

All this means that in drawing women we still 
must be conscious of planes, even if we do not 
stress them as much as wc do in drawing men. 
Plate 42 shows a man's head contrasted with a 
woman's head in the same pose. Note that the 
feeling of planes is evident in both, but more 
stressed in the man's head. Note also that the 
handling of the mouth and nose is more delicate 
in die drawing of the woman than in that of the 
man. If I do nothing else here I want to impress 
on you that smoothness and roundness arc basi- 
cally associated with the female, and squareness 
or angularity with the male. The degree to 
which you emphasize the one or the other in 
either case is determined by personal feeling 
about your subject. Plate 44 demonstrates 
how blockiness may be applied to women's 

Plates 45 and 46 are technical examples of 
women's heads which you may End of some in- 
terest- Plates 47 and 48 are sketches in which 
both roundness and squareness have been felt. 
I suggest that you make a great many sketches 
of this kind from life and from the wealth of 
material provided in magazines. 



Plates 49 and 50 deal with the characteristics 
of aging. Drawings of elderly women are the 
one place where fat seems permissible. Every- 
one loves a plump grandma. 

It is in drawing older women that your knowl- 
edge of anatomy is most evident- Younger 
women strive to keep the anatomy of the face 
pretty well covered up t and we please them 
most by doing the same in drawings* But sooner 
or later wrinkles and creases will come. We can 
subordinate the wrinkles, hut we must take the 
forms very much into consideration. New forms 
have developed in the cheeks; indications of the 
way the muscles are attached in and under the 
fab have begun to show through. Bone comes 
to the surface, for it is no longer so firmly cov- 
ered by flesh. Pockets form between the mus- 


eles for the same reason. Soft flesh stands out in 
little lumps and begins to drape somewhat to- 
ward the chin. We can be kind about it and not 
put too much emphasis on the aging process, 
but to ignore it entirely would be to lose both 
character and likeness. There is beauty in ma- 
turity and even in old age. By then character 
shines through, and there is no graciousness and 
charm greater than that of an elderly woman of 
character, who has put away most of the foibles 
and frivolities of youth. Be kind in your draw- 
ings, but do not fabricate. Insincere work does 
personal harm to your reputation, and that is 
more important to you than any single drawing 
of any face in the world. Study the aging proc- 
ess, be thoroughly familiar with what happens, 
and then treat it tenderly. 



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PLATE 40, Constructing the femole head 

The over-all proportions o( the female head vary only slightly Irom those 
of the male head, but the bone and muscle structure h lighter and less 
prominent. In commercial art feminine types with rather firm jaws seem 
to have more appeal than do the very rounded. Women's eyebrows are 
usually a little higher shove the eyes than mens are. The mouth is 
smaller; the lips are more full and rounded, and the eyes slightly larger. 
Do not stress the jaw and cheek muscles* 


PLATE 41. Establish the construction of each head 

It is almost impossible to draw a beautiful woman unless the construc- 
tion and placement of features are accurate. Keep the nostrils small and 
watch carefully the placement of the jaw and ears. The eyes and mouth 
must be in perfect placement and drawing to avoid some very strange 
and unpleasant results. Just now the brows are left fairly thick, A few 
years l>ack they were just a thin line* Personally, I like naturaMooking 
brows, but brows and lips, since the\^ arc so often made up, follow the 
trends of fashion. The same Is true of hairdos. Look for the mass effect 
of forms in the hair rather than the detail- Beauty of face is beauty of 
proportion, so learn the proportions first; then study your subject indi- 
vidually. The fashion magazines contain quantities of material for study, 
and will also keep vou up to date on make-up and hair styles. Be careful 
not to draw flat lips. Place the highlight on the lip very accurately; if it 
is in the wrong place it can change the mouth ami the whole expression. 


PIATE 42. Bone and muscle are loss apparent in women's heads 
The underlying anatomy of a girl's head is showii at Hie lop of the page. 
In drawing a fairly young woman, we let very little of the anatomy show 
oil the surface, though we must know what is underneath to make the 
surface convincing. At the bottom of the page a male and a female head 
are shown for direct comparison. Note the heavier bone and muscle 
construction and the more obvious planes in the male head. 


PLATE 43. Charm lies in the basic drawing 

PLATE 44. "Blockiness" also applies to women's heads 


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PLATE 45. Some girls' heads 

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PLATE 46. More girls' heads 

PLATE 47. Sketches 

PLATE 48. Sketches 


PLATE 49. Grandmothers 

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PLATE 50. The aging process 



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Dkawinc babies is almost a branch of art in it* 
self. Yet the illustrator and commercial artist 
may l>e called upon quite often to include them 
in his work. Babies also make particularly at- 
tractive pictures for framing; when they are well 
done, most families arc delighted with them. 

If the baby head is understood* it is really no 
harder to draw than any other head, and some- 
times not as hard. The reason is that the artist is 
dealing much more with construction and pro- 
portion than with anatomy. The skull is impor- 
tant, as always, but the muscles are so deeply 
hidden that they hardly affect the surface. As 
Plates 51 and 52 show, the proportions are some- 
what different from those in the adult head. 

In the baby head the bone structure is not yet 
completely developed. The jawlxme, cheek- 
bones, and the bridge of the nose are relatively 
much smaller This makes the baby face smaller 


in proportion to the skull, so thai the face, from 
the brows down, only occupies about onc-quar- 
tcr of the whole area of the head. The cartilages 
of the nose are way ahead of the bone structure, 
so the little nose usually turns up, because the 
bridge above it is rounded and close to the 
plane of the face. The upper lip is longer, and 
the chin, being undeveloped, usually recedes or 
is well under the lips. 

Only the iris of the eye is fully developed, 
which makes the eyes appear large and buttony. 
They appear to be farther apart than the aver- 
age adult's eyes because they rest in a smaller 
head. Eyes set too close together are unpleas- 
ant in a baby face and can spoil a drawing. 
A babys head can best Ijc studied when the 
baby is sleeping* Otherwise we must turn to 
photographs or magazine illustrations. Babies 
are bound to wriggle and there is nothing that 
we can do about it- It is therefore of great im- 
portance to fix the general or average propor- 
tions in your memory. 

You will Gnd that a certain blockiness of 
planes and edges also helps to put vitality into 
a drawing of a baby. Babies" faces are so smooth 
and so round that if we copy that quality too 
meticulously the final effect may lack character. 

If you are disturbed by seeing edges of planes 
in a drawing of a baby face it is probably be- 
cause you are too close to your drawing. Step 
back before you change it. Maude Tousey 
Fangel, one of the greatest baby artists, draws 
quite vigorously in angles and planes, Mary 
Cassatt, the Impressionist painter and student 
of Degas, also had this quality in her work. 

Plate 53 shows that the general shape of the 
babys head is a bulge attached to a round balk 
The distances up and down between the fea- 
tures arc relatively short, and the face seems 
quite wide. The first build-up of the basic shape 
should have that cute baby look. 

In the sketches in Plate 5*1, the eyes rest in the 
lower half of the first quarter division. The top 
line is the line of the brows; the nose rests on the 
line of the second division; the corners of the 
lips on the third; and the chin drops slightly 
below the line of the fourth division, 

Plate 58 shows the four divisions for children 
three to four years old. Note that the brows are 
a little above the top line, and the nose, eyes, 
and mouth have been raised above the division 
lines. These changes make the baby look slightly 
older Actually, we have allowed a little more 
chin and thereby lengthened the face slightly. 
Plates 55, 56, and 57 show a number of baby 
heads, all drawn with the foregoing proportions, 
but differing a little in character as a result of 
slight differences in the placement of features 
and the relationship of the face to the skull. 
Though the proportions vary only slightly, babies' 
skulls may differ considerably in shape. We find 
high, low, or elongated skulls in babies as well as 
in adults. 


PLATE 51. Proportions of the baby head — firstyear 

Changes in (he infant skull lake place very rapidly from the moment of 
birth through the first year or two. It is in the infant stage that the skull 
takes shape* The original shape may be due to prenatal pressures and 
the degree of hardness of the bone. After birth the bone tends to adjust 
to the conditions imposed upon it, the growth of the brain, the closing of 
the sections of the skull at the top of the cranium, which nature left open 
and pliable to facilitate birth. Racial skull types are inherited, but the 
individual type can be purely a matter ol circumstance. 

In the baby the cranium is much larger in proportion to the face than 
it is in the adult. The face to the brows occupies about one-fourth of the 
whole head. This sets the eyes below the halfway point The most con- 
venient way to set up the baby face Is in quarter points. The nosc t the 
corners of the month, and the chin come much closer to falling on these 

As the baby head develops, the face gets longer in proportion to the 
cranium, which has the effect of moving the eyes and brows upward in 
the head. Actually, the development of the lower jaw brings that down* 
ward, and the nose and upper jaw- also lengthen. As a result of these 
changes the eyes of an adult, and even of a teen-ager, are on the middle 
line of the head* It is most important to know this, because the setting 
of the eyes in relation to the middle line across the face is the direct way 
to establish the age of a child. The iris is fully developed in the baby, and 
will never get any larger; consequently the eyes look much smaller in the 
adult face. However, the opening between the eyelids docs widen, so that 
we see more of the eyeball in an adull than we do in a baby. 

PLATE 52. Proportionsofthebabyhead — second and third years 

By Ihe second and third year the eyes are about halfway up the lop 
quarter space, which I have designated the number 1 space. The nose 
and mouth also appear to have moved up, and the brows now appear to 
be above the halfway line. Now the lips just touch the bottom of the third 
space. The car has not reached the hallway line. However* the face has 
reached the proportions of three spaces: hairline to brow* brow to bot- 
tom of nose, bottom of nose to bottom of chin. Actually these three spaces 
arc still condensed* and each will grow further. But thev maintain their 
proportions to one another while growing. The ear is still well below the 
middle crosslink Note the line divided into thirds in the right half of the 
first drawing* 

When drawing babies and children it seems easier to maintain four 
divisions than to use the three divisions of an adult face. While the actual 
head is much smaller* the spaces between the features are proportionately 
wider. The eyes are wider apart; the upper lip is longer; the space from 
eye to ear appears very wide. You have to struggle with these proportions 
in order to make a baby look like a baby and not like a little old bald man. 
The baby mouth is more pursed when relaxed. The upper lip rises sharplv 
to its peak and usually protrudes. The chin is small and well under, with 
often a little fat under It. Babies* ears vary a great deal* some being quite 
small and others quite large. They are usually rounder and appear thicker 
in comparison to the face. Babies' brows are usually light and thin or 
even quite transparent. The)* are usually much more evident in dark- 
haired children. The nose is usually small and upturned, and quite 
rounded. The bridge of the nose is fairly round since it has not had time 
to develop. The checks are extended and full 


PLATE 53 . Construction of the baby head 

In drawing a very young baby, draw the ball and plane with the facial 
piano much shorter. Put the brows on the halfway line. Divide the face 
from the brows down into four parts* The eyes touch the bottom line of 
the top division. The nose touches the bottom line of the second division. 
The corners of the mouth fall on the bottom line of the third division, and 
the chin drops slightly below the fourth or bottom division. The ear Is 
under the halfway line. 


PLATE 54. Sketches of babies 

PLATE 55. Studies of babies 

The magazines are full of baby pictures, and these are best to practice 
from, since no baby will hold still long enough for anyone who is not 
thoroughly familiar with baby proportions to draw* from life* The best 
one can do is to make fast sketches. For this reason finished pictures of 
babies are usually drawn from photographs, as arc the ones on this page. 



PLATE 56. More studios of babies 

As babies grow more hair, they look older, although the proportions have 
changed only slightly. Some babies develop long eyelashes, which, with 
their already large and widely spaced eyes, give u great deal of appeal 
Go easy on the eyebrows; keep them delicate. 


PLATE 57. Some more studies of babies 

Remember to keep the bridge of the nose low and concave and the two 
little round nostrils rather widely spaced* Let the upper lip protrude when 
the baby is not smiling. Set the ears fairly low, and the chin round and 
well under. Keep the checks high and full You will usually want to add 
light tone with a highlight. 

9 :: 

PLATE 58, The four divisions of the face — third and fourth years 



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Let us understand that no branch of art can be 
reduced completely to a formula without endan- 
gering the very art that must go into it Wc do ( 
of course, seek ways and means to an end, and 
that end is correctness. Art, however, is not the 
justification of correctness. Art is not always 
perfection. l-ct us say that art is truly a form of 
expression, and full expression cannot be limited 
by formula, but only guided toward greater 
meaning and truth. African sculpture has ex* 
pression and because of that it is art. It is cer- 
tainly not truth as wc know it, but it may be 
truth with a greater meaning as they know it, 
Wc may reach greater truth by simplification 
and even by subordinating minor truth. Detail 
may Ik* minor truth but without real signifi- 
cance. Each hair in an eyebrow is detail and 
minor truth, but carries little significance. Each 
blade of grass is detail, but wc may be more 
interested in the whole hillside and the effect 
of sunlight on it 

In drawing children, let us be guided as much 
by our feeling toward them as by rules of con- 
struction and anatomy* The light on a child's 
hair may be just as beautiful and intriguing as 
the light on the hillside. The glint of mischief 
in the eye of a young boy may really l>e what 
we are drawing, more than the perfect anatomi- 
cal construction of that eye. 

It is easy to become so absorbed in technicali- 
ties that we miss the purpose. The technical must 
be united to the spiritual, because technique 
without spirit is meaningless. But feeling cannot 
be conveyed without technique and the knowl- 
edge behind technique. 

Every area of every drawing, painting, or any 
other expression of form should l>c a part of a 
whole design. The lights and shadows, the 
edges, the textures and materials may all be 

considered as much from the standpoint of de- 
sign and arrangement as for any other quality. In 
drawing heads, the pattern of the hair, the shad* 
ows cast from the head, and the bit of clothing 
all offer opportunity for design. The lights and 
shadows on the face itself create design, good 
or bad, whether we are conscious of it or not. 
The whole head is a design of forms fitted to- 
gether, and it is a masterpiece of design, func- 
tionally as well as artistically. 

I speak of all this so that we may approach 
our subject with humility and appreciation of its 
wonders. To me there is nothing more beautiful 
or wonderful in the world than the head of a 
small child. Life has left no scars, no lines of 
anxiety and frustration; it is the new flower 
emanating from the bud, fresh and as yet almost 

If children do not move you, it is perhaps a 
mistake to try to draw them. You cannot draw 
them effectively from too great an emotional 
distance. When joy goes out of your work, it is 
apt to bog down in pure technicality. 

It happens that much of my own work has 
been concerned with drawing children, and the 
more I do it, the more I find to enjoy in it. I 
feel that there is a mountain of fascinating truth 
of which I have barely scratched the surface, 
and this comes after drawing and painting per- 
haps thousands of heads of adults. Drawing 
children has a vast and relatively uncxploited 
commercial market. We need more drawings of 
children and fewer photographs, both in adver- 
tising and on our walls. The fact that children 
cannot sit still need not discourage you. You 
can trace from photographs and still raise the 
quality of your rendering beyond the purely 
photographic detail to a more artistic expres- 


PLATE 59. Proportions of the little boy's head 

lu the small bay the up-and-down proportions arc about the same as those 
in the older baby. But now the face is relatively narrower, coming well 
inside the square in the front view. The eyes appear smaller, because 
they do not grow and the face docs. We can only use the large "button" 
eyes (or very young children. The jaw and chin of the boy pictured above 
have started to grow, making the chin more prominent. The bridge of 
the nose is higher, and the nose is a little longer, almost touching the 
bottom of the second quarter. The lips touch the bottom line of the 
third quarter. At a fairly early age a full shock of hair grows. This ac- 
centuates the large cranium but keeps the face looking small and adds 
to the etiteness of the child. If a child has curly hair, mothers sometimes 
let the hair grow until it l>cgins to look grotesque. So it is well to know 
where the cranium rcallv is. 

It is hard for little boys to sit still; in drawing them, as in drawing 
babies, practice from photographs and clippings. Note that the ear is 
coming up to the halfway line. Little boys* heads seem to extend far 
back because the neck is small and the muscles which attach to the base 
of the skull are not yet developed. 

Notice particularly that the nostrils have grown and the upper lip 
appears to be somewhat shorter. The ear grows considerably during this 
period and the one which follows, I believe the ear is fully developed by 
the time the child is ten or twelve. The space from the nose to the ear 
still appears quite wide. Lashes are quite long. The hair grows quite 
well over the temples. 


PLATE 60. Proportions of the little girl's head 

The proportions ol the head arc practically the same in little girls as in 
little boys. Little girls are characteristically wider at the eyes and the jaw 
and chin are rounder. Very often the crease of the upper lid hardly shows 
over the eye. All the lines of contour are usually rounder in girls. Knowing 
this helps you make a little face more feminine; blocky or squarish forms 
give a little boy a more rugged look. In little girls the forehead tends to be 
higher at an earlier age than in boys. Some authorities claim that certain 
qualities of mentality develop faster in girls than in boys. This may ac- 
count for the higher, wider forehead. I cannot say, I do know that a 
closer hairline makes a boy look more boyish, while a larger forehead 
makes a little girl look more girlish. The treatment of the hair helps 
greatly in drawing little girls. 

Care should be taken not to draw the mouth too large on a little girls 
face, or too black. This can easily give an adult look, or a theatrical ef- 
fect not pleasant in children. The little girl's neck is round and small in 
proportion to the head. The crease between the neck and jaw seldom 
runs up to the ear but points below it. It is seldom sharply defined* The 
forehead may easily protrude a little at the top. The planes of the face 
arc all well rounded, but to keep your drawing from looking loo smooth 
and photographic, you can introduce a good deal of blockiness into the 
hair. The ear is more delicate in structure and it comes up to the half- 
way line. The brows should also be kept delicate. 


PLATE 61. Construction of the little boy's head 


PLATE 62. Construction of the little girl's head 


PLATE 63. Studies of link boys 

Sometimes back lighting or rear top lighting is effective tn combination 
with front lighting in drawing heads. The important thing is not to allow 
two lights to fall on the same surface, because this type of lighting cuts the 
area into crisscross shadows. Build up the hair in blocky forms. 


PLATE 64. Studies of little girls 

The treatment of the hair has a lot to do with the appeal of a little girls 
head. Little pigtails will probably never go out of style. Bangs also seem 
to be ever popular, and hair hanging loose or in curls is always in evi- 
dence. In color drawings or paintings, a bit of color in a hair ribbon is 
always effective. 


PLATE 65. More little boys 
As one progresses in the drawing of children, he becomes impressed with 
the distinctive character and personalities he finds. Children register as 
many feelings and emotions as adults, and much more freely and obviously* 
As we grow older we learn to hide our real emotions, sometimes too 
deeply* Most children are much more truly themselves than adults are. 


PLATE 66. More little girls 

It 1$ much easier to show a child's expression in a drawing if wc catch 
it first wilh a camera. Their changes of expression are lightning fast, and 
no child should i>c asked to hold an expression, 





This section deals with children of the gram- 
mar-school age, or up to adolescence. That is 
the age of activity and rather gradual growth, 
before the spurt of growth that comes at the 
time of adolescence* It is also the age in which 
habit and character begin to be formed and to 
show in the face* We might also call it the age 
of mischief, because the energy cannot be con- 
fined to growth and overflows into physical ac- 

It is most important to learn to draw children 
of this age with a smile— not only on the face you 
are drawing, but on your own face. Almost one 
hundred per cent of children in advertising 
must appear as both active and happy. On 
(lie other hand, a youngsters face can be par- 
ticularly beautiful in repose. Sometimes you will 
wish that the editors and art directors appreci- 
ated this more often. At least when a story is 
touching the child may be drawn without a 
grin. But in advertising, especially of foods, 
children have to l>e shown going into ecstasies 
over the product. 

Children at this age live in a world of their 
own. Most of the time a little revolution seems 
to be going on inside them, against all the 
authority which is heaped upon them by parents 
and teachers and which they are not quite old 
enough to understand. Try to remember your 
own schooldays. When asked why you did this 
or that, you could hardly have answered. "Be- 
cause I'm getting tired of so much authority," 
Sometimes adults find it hard to understand why 

the effect of our authority slips off so easily, and 
the answer can only be that there is so much 
of it. 

While we consider this the age of learning, 
we are likely to forget that much learning is 
gained by experiment, and not all by direction. 
All the wonders of invention are holding them- 
selves out for inspection by the young. If your 
boy takes your alarm clock apart, or strews your 
pet tools out by the back fenre. this comes 
under the head of experiment without direction, 
and you would have a dull l>oy if he didn't do 
a few of these things. 

When drawing children, or even when photo- 
graphing them, forget that you are grown up. 
Try hard to meet them in their own world, and 
draw them out. A child who is afraid of you or 
who shuts you out is not going to be himself, 
and so will not be a good model, if you are 
interested in conveying the spirit of childhood. 
That spirit lies in their faces only when they arc 
free of authority. Watch their faces change 
when authority descends on them. I am not 
speaking against authority itself; I just mean 
that it docs not photograph well, and resentment 
or sulkiness certainly does not make an attrac- 
tive picture. 

Since proportions have already been thor- 
oughly discussed, you can learn from Plates 67 
and 68 to apply them to the faces of school 
children. It is helpful to understand t\icm, but 
merely to get them right is not the ultimate 


PLATE 67. Proportions of tha ichoolbo/* head 

Children between eight and twelve are more difficult to draw than cither 
very young children or adults. The character of the head is pretty well 
established by this time, and some children have even taken on quite an 
adult look. But there is a trick to indicating this age group which is quite 
dependable. The eyes have moved up to touch the halfway line, and the 
space Irom the hairline to the top of the head is three-fourths of a unit 
instead of one-half unit as it is in the adult. In the adult the halfway line 
cuts through the middle of the eyes and out through the outer comers, 
while in the child approaching teen age the whole eye is below this line, 
'Hie nose is still slightly above the second quarter division in the lower 
half of the face The lower lip touches the line of the third quarter division* 

In boys there is notable development in the ears. The mouth loses 
much of the baby look. The second teeth have replaced the baby teeth 
and the jaw has developed to accommodate them. The nostrils develop and 
the cartilages of the nose spread. The bone at the bridge of the nose de- 
velops a little more slowly, so many boys retain a tumed*up nose until 
they are well into their teens* 

This is the age of freckles. It is also the age of mischief and carefree 
happiness, as the expressions show. Hie hair is unruly; the front teeth 
look large* While the front of the jaw develops, the rear of the jaw at the 
comer below the ear does not develop until later. A large square jaw 
does more than any other feature to give a look of maturity* If you want 
to keep the face young, keep the corners of the jaw rounded. 



PLATE 68. Proportions of the schoolgirl's head 
Voting girls seem to mature faster than boys as far as facial character- 
istics are concerned. Most girls acquire a fairly mature look quite early in 
their teens* As I mentioned earlier, they usually have higher foreheads, 
and the hairline is well up. The checks are rounder and there is often more 
space in the front view between the corners of the eyes and the edges of 
the face where the cars attach. 

It must lie remembered that here we are dealing with averages. There 
arc always variations and exceptions. Photographs of girls ten to twelve 
years old often look more mature than the children actually look. Some- 
times this is because we are seeing only the head and shoulders, and not 
the head in association with the rest of the body. In a girl of thirteen or 
fourteen the head is almost full grown, while the body is not. 

Full lips are always appealing in the face of a young girl, and round- 
ness rather than bonincss. Girls as well as boys often have freckles at this 
age, but do not overdo the freckles in drawing girls. 

To draw heads of children of this age group well, you will have to 
practice on a great many, 


PLATE 69. The lour divisions — schoolboys 

If you plan to do advertising illustration, or are already in that field, you 
will find drawing growing boys and girls very remunerative. Practscallv 
ail foods arc advertised to mothers with growing children and the children 
appear in profusion in such advertising. You can practice from the 
heads here, or find others in the women's magazines that offer excellent 


PLATE 70. The four divisions — schoolgirls 

At the right, above, wc have the usual quarter spacing. It is interesting and 
helpful to note how the diagonals cross in a young girl's head. The diag- 
onals from the corners of the eyes through a point at the middle of the 
l>asc of the nose also cut through the corners of the mouth; those from 
the outer ends of the brows cut through the corners of the mouth to a 
point at the base of the middle of the chin. 



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PLATE 71. Sketches of schoolboys 

These heads have been left in outline since the outline* will probably be 
more helpful than the finished heads. There is a wideiicss to young faces 
that is more felt than measured. In drawing young people ft is particu- 
larly important to tni-tt your feelings. Once in a while a face will look 
older or younger than you intended no matter what you do. In that case 
the best thing to do is to try another subject. 


PLATE 72. Sketches of schoolgirls 

Draw heads in outline until you are satisfied that the age and expression 
look right. There is no point in adding tone to a head that does not appeal 
to you. The tone can only build up the forms already established. If they 
are wrong, tone does little to help. Sometimes a head in outline may look 
better than one completely finished. 




■■ : m 







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■ ;- 




Teen-agers are popular subjects in fiction, 
advertising* and portraits. Since the proportions 
of the head are so nearly those of the adult 
he3d» we are almost bade to where we started, 
hut I hope with much more understanding. 

In drawing teen-age boys and girls we must 
take into consideration the great variety of 
types. In boys, bony faces with well-marked 
muscles are associated with athletic types. The 
muscular activities contribute to a certain lean- 
ness. Some boys grow so fast they are robbed of 
some vitality; others simply do not lean toward 
athletics. Another type of teen-age boy has a 
round face, long legs and arms and large hands 
and feet, tends to drape himself over anything 
suitable to rest upon, and hates effort— especially 
home chores. As a rule, these boys develop more 
energy later when they attain full growth. 

Since most teen-agers- girls as well as boys- 

are big eaters, if they do not exercise, they have 
a tendency toward fatness. Fortunatelv, they 
lose most of this excess weight tn the spurt of 
energy that follows full growth. 

Treat teen-agers with as much understanding 
as possible. Hemcmlxrr that this is the age of 
the first big heart throb, the age when the urge 
to be different from their elders comes out in 
every conceivable fad, in dress, hair-do, and 
personality. Study teen-agers closely to catch 
the spirit, for youth is elusive in more ways than 

Now that we are completing our study of 
heads, you will find it rewarding to review parts 
of this hook which might have given you trouble 
earlier. The new drawings should show great 
improvement over your first ones. You will find 
everything much easier, and will also have 
gained confidence from your practice work. 


PLATE 73. Proportions of the teen-age boy's head 

The proportions of (Ik* head in teen-agers arc almost identical with adults; 
the difference is largely a matter of feeling. In Ik>vs the hone structure has 
become quite evident, though it should not be stressed as much as in 
men's heads. There are no noticeable lines- The flesh is firm and still in- 
clined to smoothness. The checks arc smooth without much definition of 
the muscles. The jaw has developed considerably in a short time. The 
bridge of the nose has taken permanent shape* As the jaw and cranium 
have grown, the ears appear smaller in relation to the whole head than 
they do in a little l>oy. The cartilage of the ear is now well defined; the 
ears have lost much of their roundness and taken on more angular lines. 

The hair has moved back somewhat from the temples. The brows have 
definitely thickened. The tips arc fully developed in size. The chin has 
come forward in permanent shape. 

The only bone not fully developed is the corner of the jaw. This con- 
tinues to develop, research shows, until the age of twentv or more* I 
suspect the cranium itself does not reach its maximum growth until full 
maturity, though further growth does not perceptibly affect the proportions 
of the head. 


PLATE 74. Proportions of the teen-age girl's head 

Sixteen is traditionally the perfect age for girls. By that time they have 
lost the ganglincs* of fast growth, and all is smooth, round, and fair. Now 
tliat girls also engage in athletics, their faces tend to show more muscle 
than did those of their mothers at the same age. But the predominating 
quality is youth— the faces are untitled, full of freshness and vigor. 

These things are important in portraying young people, because the 
actual proportions of the face change very little from sixteen to sixty. 
The jaw in the girl may develop a little, but hardly enough to affect 
the drawing of the proportions much. That is why the artist must more 
or less "feci" the age he wishes to draw. 

It is quite important to obtain good material to work from. Faking a 
drawing of a beautiful young American girl is a very difficult thing to 
do, until you have drawn a great many heads, and know the basic con- 
struction inside and out- I do not believe any of the outstanding artists 
proceed without adequate material to work from. Beautv t remember, is 
largely a matter of perfect proportions and perfect placement of features. 
The commercial illustrator will need to draw many pretty girls. 


PLATE 75. Teen-age boys 

PLATE 76. Teen-age girls 



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Perhaps no aspkct of drawing is accompanied 
by more confusion and provided with less ade- 
quate material for study than is the drawing 
of hands. Much of the trouble is caused by 
searching for material instead of using the ma- 
terial you have available, because in your own 
two hands you have the best source of informa- 
tion available. Perhaps you have never thought 
about them in that light. Drawing of hands 
must be largely self-taught All any instructor 
can do is point out the facts that lie right in 
your own hands* 

The study of hands, aside from learning their 
anatomical construction, consists mainly of 
breaking down the measurements of various 
parts into comparisons* Fingers have a certain 
length in relation to the palm; spaces between 
(he joints of the fingers are in definite propor- 
tion to the whole finger. The palm is so wide 
in comparison to the length. The distances be- 
tween the knuckles on the back of the fingers 
are longer than those between the creases on 
the undersides. The length of the longest finger 
from its tip to the third knuckle in back is 
practically half the length of the back of the 
hand from fingertip to wrist. The thumb 
reaches nearly to the second joint of the first 
finger. The length of the hand is about equal 
to the length of the face from chin to hairline. 
You can make these comparative measurements 
as well as anyone else. 

The hand is the most pliable and adjustable 
part of the whole anatomy; it can be made to 
fit around or grasp almost any shape within 
reasonable size or weight This pliability is what 
causes difficulty for the artist, because the whole 
hand can assume countless different positions. 
Yet the mechanical principle by which the 
hands work remains constant. The palm, as a 
hollow, opens and closes, and the fingers fold 
inward toward the middle of the palm. The 

nails are really a stiff backing for the tips of the 
fingers, as well as an extra edge for precise 
grasping. You pick up a pin with the fingertips; 
you pick up a hammer with the palm and fin- 
gers* The Ixick of the hand is more or less rigid 
to the backward pressure of the fingers, as used 
in pushing. For adjustment to almost unlimited 
purposes, the hand is the most wonderful 
mechanism we know. In addition to its perfec- 
tion as an instrument, it is perhaps more closely 
coordinated with the brain than any other part 
of the body is. Many of its movements are con- 
trolled by subconscious reflexes; examples are 
typing and playing the piano. 

Man started to educate his hands long before 
he educated his brain in the cultural sense. The 
infant can use his hands effectively long before 
he can think. He will grasp a lighted match 
before he has learned that it will burn. The 
story of man's progress from prehistoric times 
must be closely associated with the adaptability 
of the human hand. 

The fact that the hands and their movements 
require so little conscious thought may be one 
reason why so little thought is given to drawing 
them. Look now at your own hands; you will see 
them in a new light. Note how the hand auto- 
matically assumes a shape compatible with an 
object before grasping the object. To draw a 
hand in the act of picking up an object you 
must first study the contour of the object, then 
OOSOTVe the automatic adjustment of the hand 
to fit that contour. Start to pick up a ball, a 
peach, or an apple and watch your fingers ad- 
just themselves, just ahead of the grasp. The 
mechanical principle involved is very important 
In the drawing of the hand. Only by knowing 
how it actually works can the hand be drawn 

The back of the hand can usually lie drawn 
in three planes— one for the thumb section as 


far as the bottom knuckle of the first finger* and 
the other two across the back of the ham!, taper- 
ing to the wrist. In most actions the hack of the 
hand is curved and the curve is reduced to these 
three planes. The palm is usually the three 
blocks surrounding the hollow of the palm-the 
heel ol the hand, the thick base of the thumb, 
and the padded portion just under the fingers. 
The knuckles of the fingers and thumb must be 
aligned to work inward toward the hollow of 
the palm, or when outstretched to l>e at right 
angles to the direction of the column of the 
finger. We must also be careful to align the nails 
so that they lie on top of the column with the 
middle line of the nail extended from the 
middle line of the column of the finger Other- 
wise the nail may slip around the finger without 
our realizing what is wrong; 

Keep studying your own hands to learn about 
hands in general Hie inner muscles are so 
deeply emltcdded that they are not as important 
as the outer shapes. The only indication of bone 
we sec is across the back, the knuckles, ami the 
wrists. If you get the shape of the palm in 
almost any action, the fingers can quite easily 
be attached to it and aligned with it. Study the 
comparative lengths of the fingers; remember 


that the thumb works mostly at a right angle 
to the fingers. Cet rid of the idea that hands 
are hard to draw. They arc simply confusing to 
draw unless you know how they operate. Once 
understood, hands become fascinating. 

The most important fact to remember about 
the hand is that it is hollow on the palm side 
and convex on top. The pads are so arranged 
around the palm that even liquid can )>c held 
in the hand. The hand served primitive man as 
a cup, and bv cupping the two hands together 
he could eat food which he could not hold with 
his fingers alone. The big muscle of the thumb 
is by far the most important one in the hand. 
That muscle, combined with or in opposition 
to the pull of the fingers, gave man a grasp 
powerful enough to hold even his own weight 
in suspension. This powerful muscle held his 
club, his bow. his spear. Animals depend upon 
the jaw muscles for existence, but w r e might sav 
that man depended upon his hands. 

When you have mastered the construction 
and proportions of the hand (Plates 77 to 85), 
you will find it easy to use your knowledge to 
show the special characteristics of women's 
hands and those of babies, children, and older 


PLATE 77. Anatomy of the hand 

Nate the strong tendon which attach** to the heel of the hand, and how, 
on the back of the hand, the tendons arc grouped to pull the fingers out. 
The operation of these tendons is marvelous, for they can operate all the 
fingers together from inside or oulsidc the palm, yet can control each 
finger separately. The muscles which pull these tendons are located in the 
forearm* Fortunately for the artist, most of the tendons of the palm are 
buried deeply and do not show. In babies and young people, the tendons 
on the back of the hand arc hidden, but they are much in evidence in the 
hands of adults and the aged. 

PLATE 78. Block forms of the hand 

The bones and tendons across the back of the hand are close to the stir- 
face; those around the palm and inside of the fingers arc thoroughly pad- 
ded. I have blocked out these pads so you can familiarize yourself with 
them. Note the extra thickness of the pads of the thumb muscle and the 
heel of the palm* At the base of each finger there is a pad. These com- 
bine to make a pad across the top of the palm. The pads of the fingers 
protect the bones inside. Since these pads are all pliable, they provide an 
even firmer grip on objects much as the pliable treads on an automobile 
tire grip the surface of a road. There are no pads on the top of the hand, 
though the pad at the outer edge on the little-finger side can take a tre- 
mendous blow, especially with the fist closed, without injury to the hand. 


PLATE 79. Proportions of the hand 

The next thing of importance is the curved arrangement of (he fingertips 
and knuckles. Two finger* tie on each side of a line drawn through (he 
middle of the palm. The tendon of the middle finger just about divides the 
bide of the hand in half. Important also is the fact that the thumb is 
turned at right angles to the olher fingers- The thumb operates mostly in 
ami out from the palm, while the fingers open and close toward the palm. 
The knuckles of the fingers arc slightly above their creases on the inside 
of the fingers. Note the flat curve of the knuckles across the back of the 
hand, with I he curves getting deeper as they cross the knuckles toward 
the fingertips. 

The middle finger is the key finger from which wc determine the length 
of the hand. The length of this finger to its knuckle in back is slightly 
over half the length of the hand. The width of the palm is slightly more 
than that of half the hand OH the inside. The first or index finger just 
about reaches the fingernail of the middle finger. The third finger is 
about equal to the index finger in length. The little finger just reaches 
the top knuckle of the third finger. 


PLATE 80. Construction of the hand 

PLATE 81. The hollow of the polm 

In the drawings above^ note how the hollow of the hand has been care* 
fully defined. Abo note the resulting curve of the back of the hand. Hands 
never look natural or capable of grasping until the artist understands this 
feature of the hand. All these hands took as if they eould take hold of an 
object. The loud iound of clapping comes from the sudden compression 
of air lwtween these two cups or pockets of the palms. A hand that does 
not look capable of clasping is kidly drawn. Study your own hands. 


PLATE 82. Foreshortening in drawing hands 


PLATE 83. The hand in action 

, /&* 

PLATE 84. Knuckles 


. **> 

PLATE 85. Drawing your own hand 

PLATE 86. The female hand 

Women* hands, like their lace*, differ Irom (hose of men chiefly in 
having smaller bones, more delicate muscles, and generally more round- 
new of planes. If the middle finger is made at least half the length of the 
hand on the palm side it will be more graceful and will characterize the 
hand as feminine. Even though feminine hands are slim, they still have 
amazing tenacity of grip. The long fingernails, oval in shape, add charm. 


PLATE 87. Tapered finger* 

PLATE 88. Make many studies of hands 

There is only one sure way to learn to draw hands* and that is to draw 
many, many studies. With hands, more than with anything else, proper 
spacing is essential. You must lit the lingers onto the palm in the particular 
view you see before you. Hands arc almost never straight and flat. Judge 
the spaces between the knuckles carefully. Much of the time the view- 
will require foreshortening, as shown in Plates 82 through 85* 


■> M 

PLATE 89. The baby hand 

Babies hands arc a study in themselves* The baste difference from adults' 
hands is that the palm u relatively thicker in relation to the small lingers. 
The thumb muscle and heel of the baby hand are proportionately very 
powerful. Quite young babies have a grasp equal to their own weight. The 
knuckles across the back of the hand arc buried in flesh and are indicated 
by dimples. The base of the hand may be entirely surrounded with creases. 
The heel of the hand is much thicker than the pads across the top of 
the palm. 


PLATE 90. Studies of baby hands 

PLATE 91. Children's hands 

The child's hand is halfway between that of the baby and that of the 
teen-ager. This means that the thumb muscle and the heel of the hand 
are thicker proportionately than they arc in the adult hand, but not as 
thick in relation to the fingers as they are in the baby hand. The fingers in 
relation to the palm arc about the same as in the adult. The whole hand 
is smaller, a tittle fatter, and more dimpled, and the knuckles are of 
course smoother, 


PLATE 92. The proportions remain fairly constant 

At grammar-school age there is very little difference between the hand of 
a boy and thai of a girl but at adolescence there is a big change. The 
boys hand is much larger and sturdier, showing development of bone and 
muscle. The girl's hand never develops the big knuckles of the boy's* since 
the bones stay smaller. The heel of the hand develops in the boy. but stays 
much softer and slimmer in the girl* In the boy's hand the fingernails as 
well as the fingers are slightly broader. 


PLATE 93. The hand ages 

Once you have mastered the construction ol hands, old people's hands 
arc a delight to draw. Actually they arc easier than young people's, 
since the anatomy and construction arc more obvious and show clearly on 
the surface. While the basic construction is the same, the fingers get 
thicker, the joints larger, and the knuckles protrude. The skin becomes 
wrinkled, but this need not be emphasized except in a close-up view. 


^>v ^jrareu/eii to the f\eader 

In concluding this book, I want to thank the 
readers of my previous hooks for their very kind 
letters. Because of the large number of these, 
and because of the pressure on my own lime, 
I have never l>een able to answer as many as I 
wished to. If my books have helped you, I am 


It is only within the past decade that so many 
books on drawing and painting have been avail- 
able. Perhaps another seems superfluous, but in 
investigating before starting this one, I found 
very few which concentrated on heads or hands. 
Both arc so important to commercial and por- 
trait artists that I have undertaken to fill the 
gap. It is my conviction that such a book should 
come from a person whose livelihood has de- 
pended upon the very material he is writing 
about. In this capacity I have felt that I could 
substitute actual practice for theory, because 
my own work based on the principles given 
here has proved itself by actual sales to leading 
publications over a long period of time. 

There arc many fine men in the field of com- 
mercial art, and many fine teachers in the 
schools, who would be capable of handling the 
same subject. It is largely a matter of finding 
the time and energy for such an effort in an 
already full schedule. I have found, however, 
that time can be apportioned for almost any 
endeavor that is interesting and pleasant to 
undertake, simply by curtailing competing pleas- 
ures. Much of this l>ook has been done in the 
evenings or at times between the pressure of 
other work. My hope is that if I could find time 
to do the book, others could also in the same 
way set aside time to study it. My en<l of the 
effort is completed, but I am still concerned 
that it will go out and do the job for young 
people that I want it to do. 

The men iu the field who are now the greatest 
contributors are men who had to come up the 

hard way, without much knowledge available 
in lxx>ks, grasping here and there for informa- 
tion together with much personal practice and 
experiment. Books will not do the work for any- 
one, but they can make individual effort more 
practical and profitable, speeding the acquiring 
of much-needed knowledge, so that the artist 
can have more years of successful practice. 

It is not my intention to have my readers stop 
their study of the head and hands with the clos- 
ing of this IkkjL My aim has lieen to help them 
to a well-grounded start that will give their 
own ability the best of chances. We know that 
a head cannot be well drawn by any approach 
that does not. in the fin;il effort, produce solidity 
and good eonslruction. The portrayal of char- 
acter must come from specific analysis and from 
understanding the general anatomy of the head. 
If I have shown yon how that analysis can be 
made and the reasons for the things that happen 
in drawing a head, your own progress will be 
greatly accelerated. 

Aside from technical knowledge, I feel that 
the artist must have a certain reverence for ihe 
l>eauty of the construction of the head, the 
qualities of its forms that give it individuality, 
plus a desire for beauty of craftsmanship in the 
rendering. He should strive never to let his tech- 
nique become u routine formula, by which all 
heads are done in the same manner. IxA him 
experiment constantly with the expression of 
his basic knowledge. Some heads am be done 
best by suggestion, others by complete detail 
and fidelity lo life* Some will l>c more interesting 
if rendered in line, others by tonal suggestion. 
The result should never look as if it came off an 
assembly line. To vary your technical style is 
not easy, neither is keeping your thinking varied. 
A great deal of practice and experiment is 

A very fine idea is for a group of young artists 



to organize a sketch class, meeting once a week, 
sharing the cost of a model and other expenses. 
Such a class offers each man the possibility of 
learning from the others, and it also establishes 
friendships which last a lifetime. We did this 
in my early days in Chicago. Many of the men 
in that group b»W forged ahead in their Gelds, 
and some are doing the outstanding work of the 
COUIlby. While each must be credited with a 
great deal of individual effort, there is no doubt 
that all gained from the collective experience. 
Of course, any person intending to make a living 
at art should attend a good art school if possible. 
But training need noi stop there. In the group 

I mention, all the fellows had finished their aca- 
demic work and already were active in the field, 
but they were all interested in learning more 
and so organized this informal clinic. 

1 have enjoyed the preparation of this volume, 
even if it turned into a mountain of work. I wish 
every reader the lx*st of luck, and I hope that 
each will find something in these pages that 
will be of lasting value* For those to whom draw- 
ing is a hobby rather than a profession, I hope 
the simplification of their problems will bring 
them still greater happiness in Uielr chosen